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Three Reasons to go to Tapestry in Queen Village

Three Reasons to go to Tapestry in Queen Village

Beer. That's the slogan at Tapestry — on the website, on the menu, even on the front door. We've been twice now and have to say, it's winning on all three points.

Tapestry replaced the beloved Adsum on the Queen Village corner of 5th and Bainbridge this past November. It was coined the latest gastropub in a series of openings around town, but feels less like the "pub" half of that label than most others.

Floor-to-ceiling windows on two sides open up the small-ish space and a slightly larger wine selection than many other gastropubs helps that cause. The menu, however, is a refreshing return to what we saw from gastropubs when the trend exploded a few years ago — upscale versions of staple items like burgers, fish n' chips and apps. We've been frustrated by some other well-established gastropubs fancying up their menus lately and taking off these traditional items. No matter what you call it, Tapestry is a safe bet for good food, drink and atmosphere.

Two enormous chalkboards provide the draft beer list and daily food specials. The beer selection is deep and rotates frequently. A third board lists 12+ traditional cocktails for $8 to $10 each. Bradd had a couple very well made Negronis during our first visit. Off the wine list, I'm a big fan of how easy a few glasses of the smooth Coppo Barbera L'Avvocata 07' go down after a long week.

I won't go into a ton of detail on each dish, but so far everything we've eaten at Tapestry was very good:

Bacon-wrapped dates and sweet potato fries — Both come with cranberry cherry apple cider chipotle marmalade. Commence drooling now.

Fried rock shrimp with sriracha mayo — Loved it. Not enough rock shrimp on menus these days.

Roasted peppers and stravecchio on house made bread — This is a decent-sized portion, good for sharing.

Mac & cheese — Served plain, a.k.a. three cheese, as a small plate but there is also usually a "mac n' cheese of the day" on the specials board. We had it with pancetta and peas and it was delicious. Don't worry when it comes out a little runny — it's still tasty and doesn't leave a gross heap of digested cheese sitting in your stomach all night.

Fish and chips - Tasty, and more like giant, lightly breaded fish sticks. No charge to substitute sweet potato fries for the automatic side of steak fries.

Fried chicken - Bradd is a sucker for fried chicken and is glad to see it appearing in more places (call it the Federal Donuts effect, I guess). This fried chicken was quite good. Juicy and crispy, just the way we like it.

Tapestry Burger - Another solid burger to add to the lexicon of Philly burgers. It's not up there with burger at Supper, Pub & Kitchen or Village Whiskey, but most of us would be more than pleased with it.

The staff at Tapestry was also very friendly and helpful with menu selections. They seemed happily accommodating to larger groups that walked in, shuffling around tables/chairs as best they could to seat everyone. The bar is easy to eat at, too, plus there's a little shelf for standing patrons to sit their beers on. It's the little things, you know?

We're still looking for one more go-to, solid little pub in our neighborhood on the other side of Broad St. For Queen Villagers, they've got it in Tapestry.

Top 10 Reasons to Visit Biltmore’s Conservatory Now

When Todd Roy says there are plenty of reasons to visit Biltmore’s Conservatory in late summer, he’s not exaggerating.

Once you enter the historic structure located at the end of the Walled Garden, it’s like stepping into another world—one filled with lush tropical treasures and venerable vines plus dazzling array of colors, scents, and textures to delight your senses!

Todd is a member of Biltmore’s horticulture team who care for the thousands of exotic and interesting plants that fill the Conservatory. While that much responsibility might seem daunting, he enjoys meeting the needs of his botanical “co-workers,” from hand-watering them every morning to knowing their preferences for light and shade.

George Vanderbilt chose plants with the same attention and interest as the art he collected,” said Todd. “Some of the specimens he selected are beautiful, some are rare, and some are just odd and interesting.”

It was hard to narrow down the list, but here are 10 of Todd’s top picks to see during your next Conservatory visit:

10. Longest Lives

The Conservatory has an impressive collection of Cycads with a few dating back more than a century to the time of the Vanderbilts. Cycads only grow about one inch per year, so the size some of these have achieved is especially impressive.

Between the bench and the palm towering overhead, a lush Cycad makes a photo-worthy backdrop

9. Largest Leaves

Just inside the Cool House, look for a grouping of Thai Giant Elephant Ears (Colocasia gigantea) featuring some of the largest leaves in the Conservatory.

Thai Giant Elephant Ears sport umbrella-sized leaves in the Cool House

8. Intriguing Alleys (Edible)

Each year, Todd creates special themes for the two alleys located between the main wings of the Conservatory. This year, they’re showcasing useful/edible plants in one alley and water features in the other.

Have you ever wondered how coffee, cotton, or allspice (Pimenta dioicaa) grows? You’ll find examples of each along with black pepper vine, Miracle Fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) that makes sour foods taste sweet, Barbados cherry (Malpighia emarginata), an important source of Vitamin C, and many more.

Close-up view of the aptly-named Miracle Fruit

7. Intriguing Alleys (Water Features)

Once you’ve admired all the edible plants, take a stroll down the opposite alley to experience the soothing sounds of water trickling and splashing over pebbles into small pools surrounded by lush container plantings. Linger here to watch the play of light on water and absorb the peaceful atmosphere of this relaxing space tucked away and just waiting to be discovered!

Look for a series of relaxing water features in one of the Conservatory’s two alleys this summer

6. Hummingbird Haven

According to Todd, the Red Button Ginger (Costus woodsonii) growing near the end of the Cool House is a hummingbird magnet. “When it flowers in late summer, each ginger cone produces a single red bloom,” said Todd, “and the hummingbirds know it’s there, almost as if they’ve mapped out the Conservatory. I see them early in the morning, visiting each flower, then flying away before it gets too warm inside.”

Red Button Ginger displays a single “button” or bloom

5. Tropical Travel

Want to visit the tropics without leaving Biltmore? Don’t miss the fragrant display of Plumeria in containers along the back wall behind the Conservatory. Also commonly known as Frangipani, Plumeria is native to many of the world’s tropical regions and the beautiful blooms are often used in Hawaiian leis.

Pretty pink Plumeria flowers smell as lovely as they look

4. Signature Scent

If you’re a fan of Coco Chanel’s iconic Chanel No. 5 perfume, your nose may lead you to a very special specimen growing in Biltmore’s Conservatory. The Ylang Ylang Tree (Cananga odorata) produces creamy yellow flowers with long petals, and their heady floral scent is the signature note associated with the world-famous fragrance.

A fragrant yellow bloom of the Ylang Ylang Tree

3. Cereus Secrets

The area of the Conservatory dedicated to members of the cactus clan definitely keeps some secrets from our day guests!

“It’s actually very hard to catch a night-blooming cactus at its peak,” Todd tells us. “You have to be here late at night or very early in the morning to see the full potential of the flowers.” Lucky for us, Todd has captured some elusive blooms from the Cereus family like this stunning Queen of the Night (Epiphyllum oxypetalum) example.

‘Queen of the Night’ cactus in bloom

2. Pitcher Perfect

While the idea of carniverous plants may seem like an oxymoron, Slender Pitcher Plants (Nepenthes gracilis) and other varieties offer a fascinating glimpse into a highly-specialized world in which plants attract and trap insects as their main source of food. The year-round warmth of the Conservatory provides a perfect environment for both the pitchers and the insects on which they feed.

A staff member shows off the pitcher portion of the Slender Pitcher Plant

1. Glorious Glass

No visit to the Conservatory is complete without marveling at the glorious glass sculptures by artist Dale Chihuly during Chihuly at Biltmoreand Chihuly Nights at Biltmore. As you approach the Conservatory, note the Cattails and Copper Birch Reeds installed in the Butterfly Garden.
Cattails and Copper Birch Reeds aglow in front of the Conservatory during Chihuly Nights at Biltmore

Inside the structure, look up to the ceiling to spot three intricate Burnished Amber, Citron, and Teal Chandeliers you’ll find them at the far left, far right, and in the center of the main room. Their time is limited, however, as these breathtaking “blooms” are only here until October 7.

One of Chihuly’s three Burnished Amber, Citron, and Teal Chandeliers inside the Conservatory at Biltmore

Featured blog photo: Biltmore horticulturalists at the Conservatory


Lennon was born at Liverpool Maternity Hospital to Julia (née Stanley) (1914–1958) and Alfred Lennon (1912–1976). Alfred was a merchant seaman of Irish descent who was away at the time of his son's birth. [4] His parents named him John Winston Lennon after his paternal grandfather, John "Jack" Lennon, and Prime Minister Winston Churchill. [5] His father was often away from home but sent regular pay cheques to 9 Newcastle Road, Liverpool, where Lennon lived with his mother [6] the cheques stopped when he went absent without leave in February 1944. [7] [8] When he eventually came home six months later, he offered to look after the family, but Julia, by then pregnant with another man's child, rejected the idea. [9] After her sister Mimi complained to Liverpool's Social Services twice, Julia gave her custody of Lennon. In July 1946, Lennon's father visited her and took his son to Blackpool, secretly intending to emigrate to New Zealand with him. [10] Julia followed them – with her partner at the time, Bobby Dykins – and after a heated argument, his father forced the five-year-old to choose between them. In one account of this incident, Lennon twice chose his father, but as his mother walked away, he began to cry and followed her. [11] According to author Mark Lewisohn, however, Lennon's parents agreed that Julia should take him and give him a home. A witness who was there that day, Billy Hall, has said that the dramatic portrayal of a young John Lennon being forced to make a decision between his parents is inaccurate. [12] Lennon had no further contact with Alf for close to 20 years. [13]

Throughout the rest of his childhood and adolescence, Lennon lived at Mendips, 251 Menlove Avenue, Woolton, with Mimi and her husband George Toogood Smith, who had no children of their own. [14] His aunt purchased volumes of short stories for him, and his uncle, a dairyman at his family's farm, bought him a mouth organ and engaged him in solving crossword puzzles. [15] Julia visited Mendips on a regular basis, and John often visited her at 1 Blomfield Road, Liverpool, where she played him Elvis Presley records, taught him the banjo, and showed him how to play "Ain't That a Shame" by Fats Domino. [16] In September 1980, Lennon commented about his family and his rebellious nature:

A part of me would like to be accepted by all facets of society and not be this loudmouthed lunatic poet/musician. But I cannot be what I am not . I was the one who all the other boys' parents – including Paul's father – would say, "Keep away from him" . The parents instinctively recognised I was a troublemaker, meaning I did not conform and I would influence their children, which I did. I did my best to disrupt every friend's home . Partly out of envy that I didn't have this so-called home . but I did . There were five women that were my family. Five strong, intelligent, beautiful women, five sisters. One happened to be my mother. [She] just couldn't deal with life. She was the youngest and she had a husband who ran away to sea and the war was on and she couldn't cope with me, and I ended up living with her elder sister. Now those women were fantastic . And that was my first feminist education . I would infiltrate the other boys' minds. I could say, "Parents are not gods because I don't live with mine and, therefore, I know." [17]

He regularly visited his cousin, Stanley Parkes, who lived in Fleetwood and took him on trips to local cinemas. [18] During the school holidays Parkes often visited Lennon with Leila Harvey, another cousin, and the threesome often travelled to Blackpool two or three times a week to watch shows. They would visit the Blackpool Tower Circus and see artists such as Dickie Valentine, Arthur Askey, Max Bygraves and Joe Loss, with Parkes recalling that Lennon particularly liked George Formby. [19] After Parkes's family moved to Scotland, the three cousins often spent their school holidays together there. Parkes recalled, "John, cousin Leila and I were very close. From Edinburgh we would drive up to the family croft at Durness, which was from about the time John was nine years old until he was about 16." [20] Lennon's uncle George died of a liver haemorrhage on 5 June 1955, aged 52. [21]

Lennon was raised as an Anglican and attended Dovedale Primary School. [22] After passing his eleven-plus exam, he attended Quarry Bank High School in Liverpool from September 1952 to 1957, and was described by Harvey at the time as a "happy-go-lucky, good-humoured, easy going, lively lad". [23] He often drew comical cartoons that appeared in his own, self-made school magazine called the Daily Howl. [24] [nb 2]

In 1956, Julia bought John his first guitar. The instrument was an inexpensive Gallotone Champion acoustic for which she lent her son five pounds and ten shillings on the condition that the guitar be delivered to her own house and not Mimi's, knowing well that her sister was not supportive of her son's musical aspirations. [26] Mimi was sceptical of his claim that he would be famous one day, and she hoped that he would grow bored with music, often telling him, "The guitar's all very well, John, but you'll never make a living out of it." [27]

On 15 July 1958, Julia Lennon was struck and killed by a car while she was walking home after visiting the Smiths' house. [28] His mother's death traumatised the teenage Lennon, who, for the next two years, drank heavily and frequently got into fights, consumed by a "blind rage". [29] Julia's memory would later serve as a major creative inspiration for Lennon, inspiring songs such as the 1968 Beatles song "Julia". [30]

Lennon's senior school years were marked by a shift in his behaviour. Teachers at Quarry Bank High School described him thus: "He has too many wrong ambitions and his energy is often misplaced", and "His work always lacks effort. He is content to 'drift' instead of using his abilities." [31] Lennon's misbehaviour created a rift in his relationship with his aunt.

Lennon failed his O-level examinations, and was accepted into the Liverpool College of Art after his aunt and headmaster intervened. [32] At the college he began to wear Teddy Boy clothes and was threatened with expulsion for his behaviour. [33] In the description of Cynthia Powell, Lennon's fellow student and subsequently his wife, he was "thrown out of the college before his final year". [34]

Formation, fame and touring: 1956–1966

At the age of 15, Lennon formed a skiffle group, the Quarrymen. Named after Quarry Bank High School, the group was established by Lennon in September 1956. [35] By the summer of 1957, the Quarrymen played a "spirited set of songs" made up of half-skiffle and half-rock and roll. [36] Lennon first met Paul McCartney at the Quarrymen's second performance, which was held in Woolton on 6 July at the St Peter's Church garden fête. Lennon then asked McCartney to join the band. [37]

McCartney said that Aunt Mimi "was very aware that John's friends were lower class", and would often patronise him when he arrived to visit Lennon. [38] According to McCartney's brother Mike, their father similarly disapproved of Lennon, declaring that Lennon would get his son "into trouble". [39] McCartney's father nevertheless allowed the fledgling band to rehearse in the family's front room at 20 Forthlin Road. [40] [41] During this time Lennon wrote his first song, "Hello Little Girl", which became a UK top 10 hit for the Fourmost in 1963. [42]

McCartney recommended that his friend George Harrison become the lead guitarist. [43] Lennon thought that Harrison, then 14 years old, was too young. McCartney engineered an audition on the upper deck of a Liverpool bus, where Harrison played "Raunchy" for Lennon and was asked to join. [44] Stuart Sutcliffe, Lennon's friend from art school, later joined as bassist. [45] Lennon, McCartney, Harrison and Sutcliffe became "The Beatles" in early 1960. In August that year, the Beatles were engaged for a 48-night residency in Hamburg, in West Germany, and were desperately in need of a drummer. They asked Pete Best to join them. [46] Lennon's aunt, horrified when he told her about the trip, pleaded with Lennon to continue his art studies instead. [47] After the first Hamburg residency, the band accepted another in April 1961, and a third in April 1962. As with the other band members, Lennon was introduced to Preludin while in Hamburg, [48] and regularly took the drug as a stimulant during their long, overnight performances. [49]

Brian Epstein managed the Beatles from 1962 until his death in 1967. He had no previous experience managing artists, but he had a strong influence on the group's dress code and attitude on stage. [50] Lennon initially resisted his attempts to encourage the band to present a professional appearance, but eventually complied, saying "I'll wear a bloody balloon if somebody's going to pay me." [51] McCartney took over on bass after Sutcliffe decided to stay in Hamburg, and Best was replaced with drummer Ringo Starr this completed the four-piece line-up that would remain until the group's break-up in 1970. The band's first single, "Love Me Do", was released in October 1962 and reached No. 17 on the British charts. They recorded their debut album, Please Please Me, in under 10 hours on 11 February 1963, [52] a day when Lennon was suffering the effects of a cold, [53] which is evident in the vocal on the last song to be recorded that day, "Twist and Shout". [54] The Lennon–McCartney songwriting partnership yielded eight of its fourteen tracks. With a few exceptions, one being the album title itself, Lennon had yet to bring his love of wordplay to bear on his song lyrics, saying: "We were just writing songs . pop songs with no more thought of them than that – to create a sound. And the words were almost irrelevant". [52] In a 1987 interview, McCartney said that the other Beatles idolised Lennon: "He was like our own little Elvis . We all looked up to John. He was older and he was very much the leader he was the quickest wit and the smartest." [55]

The Beatles achieved mainstream success in the UK early in 1963. Lennon was on tour when his first son, Julian, was born in April. During their Royal Variety Show performance, which was attended by the Queen Mother and other British royalty, Lennon poked fun at the audience: "For our next song, I'd like to ask for your help. For the people in the cheaper seats, clap your hands . and the rest of you, if you'll just rattle your jewellery." [56] After a year of Beatlemania in the UK, the group's historic February 1964 US debut appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show marked their breakthrough to international stardom. A two-year period of constant touring, filmmaking, and songwriting followed, during which Lennon wrote two books, In His Own Write and A Spaniard in the Works. [57] The Beatles received recognition from the British establishment when they were appointed Members of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) in the 1965 Queen's Birthday Honours. [58]

Lennon grew concerned that fans who attended Beatles concerts were unable to hear the music above the screaming of fans, and that the band's musicianship was beginning to suffer as a result. [59] Lennon's "Help!" expressed his own feelings in 1965: "I meant it . It was me singing 'help'". [60] He had put on weight (he would later refer to this as his "Fat Elvis" period), [61] and felt he was subconsciously seeking change. [62] In March that year he and Harrison were unknowingly introduced to LSD when a dentist, hosting a dinner party attended by the two musicians and their wives, spiked the guests' coffee with the drug. [63] When they wanted to leave, their host revealed what they had taken, and strongly advised them not to leave the house because of the likely effects. Later, in a lift at a nightclub, they all believed it was on fire Lennon recalled: "We were all screaming . hot and hysterical." [64] In March 1966, during an interview with Evening Standard reporter Maureen Cleave, Lennon remarked, "Christianity will go. It will vanish and shrink . We're more popular than Jesus now – I don't know which will go first, rock and roll or Christianity." [65] The comment went virtually unnoticed in England but caused great offence in the US when quoted by a magazine there five months later. The furore that followed, which included the burning of Beatles records, Ku Klux Klan activity and threats against Lennon, contributed to the band's decision to stop touring. [66]

Studio years, break-up and solo work: 1966–1970

After the band's final concert on 29 August 1966, Lennon filmed the anti-war black comedy How I Won the War – his only appearance in a non-Beatles feature film – before rejoining his bandmates for an extended period of recording, beginning in November. [67] Lennon had increased his use of LSD [68] and, according to author Ian MacDonald, his continuous use of the drug in 1967 brought him "close to erasing his identity". [69] The year 1967 saw the release of "Strawberry Fields Forever", hailed by Time magazine for its "astonishing inventiveness", [70] and the group's landmark album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, which revealed lyrics by Lennon that contrasted strongly with the simple love songs of the group's early years. [71] In late June, the Beatles performed Lennon's "All You Need Is Love" as Britain's contribution to the Our World satellite broadcast, before an international audience estimated at up to 400 million. [72] Intentionally simplistic in its message, [73] the song formalised his pacifist stance and provided an anthem for the Summer of Love. [74]

After the Beatles were introduced to the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the group attended an August weekend of personal instruction at his Transcendental Meditation seminar in Bangor, Wales. [75] During the seminar, they were informed of Epstein's death. "I knew we were in trouble then", Lennon said later. "I didn't have any misconceptions about our ability to do anything other than play music. I was scared – I thought, 'We've fucking had it now.'" [76] McCartney organised the group's first post-Epstein project, [77] the self-written, -produced and -directed television film Magical Mystery Tour, which was released in December that year. While the film itself proved to be their first critical flop, its soundtrack release, featuring Lennon's Lewis Carroll-inspired "I Am the Walrus", was a success. [78] [79]

Led by Harrison and Lennon's interest, the Beatles travelled to the Maharishi's ashram in India in February 1968 for further guidance. [80] While there, they composed most of the songs for their double album The Beatles, [81] but the band members' mixed experience with Transcendental Meditation signalled a sharp divergence in the group's camaraderie. [82] On their return to London, they became increasingly involved in business activities with the formation of Apple Corps, a multimedia corporation composed of Apple Records and several other subsidiary companies. Lennon described the venture as an attempt to achieve "artistic freedom within a business structure". [83] Released amid a period of civic unrest and protests, the band's debut single for the Apple label included Lennon's B-side "Revolution", in which he called for a "plan" rather than committing to Maoist revolution. The song's pacifist message led to ridicule from political radicals in the New Left press. [84] Adding to the tensions at the Beatles' recording sessions that year, Lennon insisted on having his new girlfriend, the Japanese artist Yoko Ono, beside him, thereby contravening the band's policy regarding wives and girlfriends in the studio. He was especially pleased with his songwriting contributions to the double album and identified it as a superior work to Sgt. Pepper. [85] At the end of 1968, Lennon participated in The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus, a television special that was not broadcast. Lennon performed with the Dirty Mac, a supergroup composed of Lennon, Eric Clapton, Keith Richards and Mitch Mitchell. The group also backed a vocal performance by Ono. A film version was released in 1996. [86]

By late 1968, Lennon's increased drug use and growing preoccupation with Ono, combined with the Beatles' inability to agree on how the company should be run, left Apple in need of professional management. Lennon asked Lord Beeching to take on the role, but he declined, advising Lennon to go back to making records. Lennon was approached by Allen Klein, who had managed the Rolling Stones and other bands during the British Invasion. In early 1969, Klein was appointed as Apple's chief executive by Lennon, Harrison and Starr, [87] but McCartney never signed the management contract. [88] Lennon and Ono were married on 20 March 1969, and soon released a series of 14 lithographs called "Bag One" depicting scenes from their honeymoon, [89] eight of which were deemed indecent and most of which were banned and confiscated. [90] Lennon's creative focus continued to move beyond the Beatles, and between 1968 and 1969 he and Ono recorded three albums of experimental music together: Unfinished Music No. 1: Two Virgins [91] (known more for its cover than for its music), Unfinished Music No. 2: Life with the Lions and Wedding Album. In 1969, they formed the Plastic Ono Band, releasing Live Peace in Toronto 1969. Between 1969 and 1970, Lennon released the singles "Give Peace a Chance", which was widely adopted as an anti-Vietnam War anthem, [92] "Cold Turkey", which documented his withdrawal symptoms after he became addicted to heroin, [93] and "Instant Karma!".

In protest at Britain's involvement in "the Nigeria-Biafra thing" [95] (namely, the Nigerian Civil War), [96] its support of America in the Vietnam War and (perhaps jokingly) against "Cold Turkey" slipping down the charts, [97] Lennon returned his MBE medal to the Queen. This gesture had no effect on his MBE status, which could not be renounced. [98] The medal, together with Lennon's letter, is held at the Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood. [99]

Lennon left the Beatles in September 1969, [100] but agreed not to inform the media while the group renegotiated their recording contract. He was outraged that McCartney publicised his own departure on releasing his debut solo album in April 1970. Lennon's reaction was, "Jesus Christ! He gets all the credit for it!" [101] He later wrote, "I started the band. I disbanded it. It's as simple as that." [102] In a December 1970 interview with Jann Wenner of Rolling Stone magazine, he revealed his bitterness towards McCartney, saying, "I was a fool not to do what Paul did, which was use it to sell a record." [103] Lennon also spoke of the hostility he perceived the other members had towards Ono, and of how he, Harrison and Starr "got fed up with being sidemen for Paul . After Brian Epstein died we collapsed. Paul took over and supposedly led us. But what is leading us when we went round in circles?" [104]

Initial solo success and activism: 1970–1972

In 1970, Lennon and Ono went through primal therapy with Arthur Janov in Los Angeles, California. Designed to release emotional pain from early childhood, the therapy entailed two half-days a week with Janov for four months he had wanted to treat the couple for longer, but they felt no need to continue and returned to London. [106] Lennon's debut solo album, John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band (1970), was received with praise by many music critics, but its highly personal lyrics and stark sound limited its commercial performance. [107] Critic Greil Marcus remarked, "John's singing in the last verse of 'God' may be the finest in all of rock." [108] The album featured the song "Mother", in which Lennon confronted his feelings of childhood rejection, [109] and the Dylanesque "Working Class Hero", a bitter attack against the bourgeois social system which, due to the lyric "you're still fucking peasants", fell foul of broadcasters. [110] [111] In January 1971, Tariq Ali expressed his revolutionary political views when he interviewed Lennon, who immediately responded by writing "Power to the People". In his lyrics to the song, Lennon reversed the non-confrontational approach he had espoused in "Revolution", although he later disowned "Power to the People", saying that it was borne out of guilt and a desire for approval from radicals such as Ali. [112] Lennon became involved with Ali in a protest against the prosecution of Oz magazine for alleged obscenity. Lennon denounced the proceedings as "disgusting fascism", and he and Ono (as Elastic Oz Band) released the single "God Save Us/Do the Oz" and joined marches in support of the magazine. [113]

Eager for a major commercial success, Lennon adopted a more accessible sound for his next album, Imagine (1971). [117] Rolling Stone reported that "it contains a substantial portion of good music" but warned of the possibility that "his posturings will soon seem not merely dull but irrelevant". [118] The album's title track later became an anthem for anti-war movements, [119] while the song "How Do You Sleep?" was a musical attack on McCartney in response to lyrics on Ram that Lennon felt, and McCartney later confirmed, [120] were directed at him and Ono. [121] [nb 3] In "Jealous Guy", Lennon addressed his demeaning treatment of women, acknowledging that his past behaviour was the result of long-held insecurity. [123] In gratitude for his guitar contributions to Imagine, Lennon initially agreed to perform at Harrison's Concert for Bangladesh benefit shows in New York. [124] Harrison refused to allow Ono to participate at the concerts, however, which resulted in the couple having a heated argument and Lennon pulling out of the event. [125]

Lennon and Ono moved to New York in August 1971 and immediately embraced US radical left politics. The couple released their "Happy Xmas (War Is Over)" single in December. [126] During the new year, the Nixon administration took what it called a "strategic counter-measure" against Lennon's anti-war and anti-Nixon propaganda. The administration embarked on what would be a four-year attempt to deport him. [127] [128] Lennon was embroiled in a continuing legal battle with the immigration authorities, and he was denied permanent residency in the US the issue would not be resolved until 1976. [129]

Some Time in New York City was recorded as a collaboration with Ono and was released in 1972 with backing from the New York band Elephant's Memory. A double LP, it contained songs about women's rights, race relations, Britain's role in Northern Ireland and Lennon's difficulties in obtaining a green card. [130] The album was a commercial failure and was maligned by critics, who found its political sloganeering heavy-handed and relentless. [131] The NME ' s review took the form of an open letter in which Tony Tyler derided Lennon as a "pathetic, ageing revolutionary". [132] In the US, "Woman Is the Nigger of the World" was released as a single from the album and was televised on 11 May, on The Dick Cavett Show. Many radio stations refused to broadcast the song because of the word "nigger". [133] Lennon and Ono gave two benefit concerts with Elephant's Memory and guests in New York in aid of patients at the Willowbrook State School mental facility. [134] Staged at Madison Square Garden on 30 August 1972, they were his last full-length concert appearances. [135] After George McGovern lost the 1972 presidential election to Richard Nixon, Lennon and Ono attended a post-election wake held in the New York home of activist Jerry Rubin. [127] Lennon was depressed and got intoxicated he left Ono embarrassed after he had sex with a female guest. Ono's song "Death of Samantha" was inspired by the incident. [136]

"Lost weekend": 1973–1975

While Lennon was recording Mind Games in 1973, he and Ono decided to separate. The ensuing 18-month period apart, which he later called his "lost weekend" in reference to the film of the same name, [137] [138] was spent in Los Angeles and New York City in the company of May Pang. Mind Games, credited to the "Plastic U.F.Ono Band", was released in November 1973. Lennon also contributed "I'm the Greatest" to Starr's album Ringo (1973), released the same month. With Harrison joining Starr and Lennon at the recording session for the song, it marked the only occasion when three former Beatles recorded together between the band's break-up and Lennon's death. [139] [nb 4]

In early 1974, Lennon was drinking heavily and his alcohol-fuelled antics with Harry Nilsson made headlines. In March, two widely publicised incidents occurred at The Troubadour club. In the first incident, Lennon stuck an unused menstrual pad on his forehead and scuffled with a waitress. The second incident occurred two weeks later, when Lennon and Nilsson were ejected from the same club after heckling the Smothers Brothers. [141] Lennon decided to produce Nilsson's album Pussy Cats, and Pang rented a Los Angeles beach house for all the musicians. [142] After a month of further debauchery, the recording sessions were in chaos, and Lennon returned to New York with Pang to finish work on the album. In April, Lennon had produced the Mick Jagger song "Too Many Cooks (Spoil the Soup)" which was, for contractual reasons, to remain unreleased for more than 30 years. Pang supplied the recording for its eventual inclusion on The Very Best of Mick Jagger (2007). [143]

Lennon had settled back in New York when he recorded the album Walls and Bridges. Released in October 1974, it included "Whatever Gets You thru the Night", which featured Elton John on backing vocals and piano, and became Lennon's only single as a solo artist to top the US Billboard Hot 100 chart during his lifetime. [144] [nb 5] A second single from the album, "#9 Dream", followed before the end of the year. Starr's Goodnight Vienna (1974) again saw assistance from Lennon, who wrote the title track and played piano. [146] On 28 November, Lennon made a surprise guest appearance at Elton John's Thanksgiving concert at Madison Square Garden, in fulfilment of his promise to join the singer in a live show if "Whatever Gets You thru the Night", a song whose commercial potential Lennon had doubted, reached number one. Lennon performed the song along with "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" and "I Saw Her Standing There", which he introduced as "a song by an old estranged fiancé of mine called Paul". [147]

Lennon co-wrote "Fame", David Bowie's first US number one, and provided guitar and backing vocals for the January 1975 recording. [148] In the same month, Elton John topped the charts with his cover of "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds", featuring Lennon on guitar and back-up vocals Lennon is credited on the single under the moniker of "Dr. Winston O'Boogie". He and Ono were reunited shortly afterwards. Lennon released Rock 'n' Roll (1975), an album of cover songs, in February. "Stand by Me", taken from the album and a US and UK hit, became his last single for five years. [149] He made what would be his final stage appearance in the ATV special A Salute to Lew Grade, recorded on 18 April and televised in June. [150] Playing acoustic guitar and backed by an eight-piece band, Lennon performed two songs from Rock 'n' Roll ("Stand by Me", which was not broadcast, and "Slippin' and Slidin'") followed by "Imagine". [150] The band, known as Etc., wore masks behind their heads, a dig by Lennon, who thought Grade was two-faced. [151]

Hiatus and return: 1975–1980

Sean was Lennon's only child with Ono. Sean was born on 9 October 1975 (Lennon's thirty-fifth birthday), and John took on the role of househusband. Lennon began what would be a five-year hiatus from the music industry, during which time, he later said, he "baked bread" and "looked after the baby". [152] He devoted himself to Sean, rising at 6 am daily to plan and prepare his meals and to spend time with him. [153] He wrote "Cookin' (In the Kitchen of Love)" for Starr's Ringo's Rotogravure (1976), performing on the track in June in what would be his last recording session until 1980. [154] He formally announced his break from music in Tokyo in 1977, saying, "we have basically decided, without any great decision, to be with our baby as much as we can until we feel we can take time off to indulge ourselves in creating things outside of the family." [155] During his career break he created several series of drawings, and drafted a book containing a mix of autobiographical material and what he termed "mad stuff", [156] all of which would be published posthumously.

Lennon emerged from his five-year interruption in music recording in October 1980, when he released the single "(Just Like) Starting Over". The following month saw the release of Double Fantasy, which contained songs written during the summer of 1980, spent in Bermuda. Lennon sailed a 43-foot sailing boat with his younger son in June 1980 journey to the British colony, where they briefly lived at Knapton Hill before local businessman Rolf Oskar Luthi vacated his Undercliff, his home at Fairylands, to enable the Lennons to take up temporary residence. [157] [158] [159] [160]

The music reflected Lennon's fulfilment in his new-found stable family life. [161] Sufficient additional material was recorded for a planned follow-up album Milk and Honey, which was released posthumously, in 1984. [162] Double Fantasy was jointly released by Lennon and Ono very shortly before his death the album was not well received and drew comments such as Melody Maker's "indulgent sterility . a godawful yawn". [163]

At approximately 5:00 p.m. on 8 December 1980, Lennon autographed a copy of Double Fantasy for fan Mark David Chapman before leaving The Dakota with Ono for a recording session at the Record Plant. [164] After the session, Lennon and Ono returned to their Manhattan apartment in a limousine at around 10:50 p.m. EST. They exited the vehicle and walked through the archway of the building when Chapman shot Lennon twice in the back and twice in the shoulder [165] at close range. Lennon was rushed in a police cruiser to the emergency room of Roosevelt Hospital, where he was pronounced dead on arrival at 11:15 p.m. (EST). [166] [167]

Ono issued a statement the next day, saying "There is no funeral for John", ending it with the words, "John loved and prayed for the human race. Please do the same for him." [168] His remains were cremated at Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York. Ono scattered his ashes in New York's Central Park, where the Strawberry Fields memorial was later created. [169] Chapman avoided going to trial when he ignored his attorney's advice and pleaded guilty to second-degree murder and was sentenced to 20-years-to-life. [170] [nb 6]

In the weeks following the murder, "(Just Like) Starting Over" and Double Fantasy topped the charts in the UK and the US. [172] In a further example of the public outpouring of grief, "Imagine" hit number one in the UK in January 1981 and "Happy Xmas" peaked at number two. [173] "Imagine" was succeeded at the top of the UK chart by "Woman", the second single from Double Fantasy. [174] Later that year, Roxy Music's cover version of "Jealous Guy", recorded as a tribute to Lennon, was also a UK number-one. [22]

Cynthia Lennon

Lennon met Cynthia Powell (1939–2015) in 1957, when they were fellow students at the Liverpool College of Art. [175] Although Powell was intimidated by Lennon's attitude and appearance, she heard that he was obsessed with the French actress Brigitte Bardot, so she dyed her hair blonde. Lennon asked her out, but when she said that she was engaged, he shouted, "I didn't ask you to fuckin' marry me, did I?" [176] She often accompanied him to Quarrymen gigs and travelled to Hamburg with McCartney's girlfriend to visit him. [177]

Lennon was jealous by nature and eventually grew possessive, often terrifying Powell with his anger. [178] In her 2005 memoir John, Powell recalled that, when they were dating, Lennon once struck her after he observed her dancing with Stuart Sutcliffe. [179] She ended their relationship as a result, until three months later, when Lennon apologised and asked to reunite. [180] She took him back and later noted that he was never again physically abusive towards her, although he could still be "verbally cutting and unkind". [181] Lennon later said that until he met Ono, he had never questioned his chauvinistic attitude towards women. He said that the Beatles song "Getting Better" told his own story, "I used to be cruel to my woman, and physically – any woman. I was a hitter. I couldn't express myself and I hit. I fought men and I hit women. That is why I am always on about peace." [182]

Recalling his July 1962 reaction when he learned that Cynthia was pregnant, Lennon said, "There's only one thing for it Cyn. We'll have to get married." [183] The couple wed on 23 August at the Mount Pleasant Register Office in Liverpool, with Brian Epstein serving as best man. His marriage began just as Beatlemania was taking off across the UK. He performed on the evening of his wedding day and would continue to do so almost daily from then on. [184] Epstein feared that fans would be alienated by the idea of a married Beatle, and he asked the Lennons to keep their marriage secret. Julian was born on 8 April 1963 Lennon was on tour at the time and did not see his infant son until three days later. [185]

Cynthia attributed the start of the marriage breakdown to Lennon's use of LSD, and she felt that he slowly lost interest in her as a result of his use of the drug. [186] When the group travelled by train to Bangor, Wales in 1967 for the Maharishi Yogi's Transcendental Meditation seminar, a policeman did not recognise her and stopped her from boarding. She later recalled how the incident seemed to symbolise the end of their marriage. [187] After spending a holiday in Greece, [188] Cynthia arrived home at Kenwood to find Lennon sitting on the floor with Ono in terrycloth robes [189] and left the house, feeling shocked and humiliated, [190] to stay with friends. A few weeks later, Alexis Mardas informed Powell that Lennon was seeking a divorce and custody of Julian. [191] She received a letter stating that Lennon was doing so on the grounds of her adultery with Italian hotelier Roberto Bassanini, an accusation which Powell denied. [192] After negotiations, Lennon capitulated and agreed to let her divorce him on the same grounds. [193] The case was settled out of court in November 1968, with Lennon giving her £100,000 ($240,000 in US dollars at the time), a small annual payment and custody of Julian. [194]

Brian Epstein

The Beatles were performing at Liverpool's Cavern Club in November 1961 when they were introduced to Brian Epstein after a midday concert. Epstein was homosexual and closeted, and according to biographer Philip Norman, one of Epstein's reasons for wanting to manage the group was that he was attracted to Lennon. Almost as soon as Julian was born, Lennon went on holiday to Spain with Epstein, which led to speculation about their relationship. When he was later questioned about it, Lennon said, "Well, it was almost a love affair, but not quite. It was never consummated. But it was a pretty intense relationship. It was my first experience with a homosexual that I was conscious was homosexual. We used to sit in a café in Torremolinos looking at all the boys and I'd say, 'Do you like that one? Do you like this one?' I was rather enjoying the experience, thinking like a writer all the time: I am experiencing this." [195] Soon after their return from Spain, at McCartney's twenty-first birthday party in June 1963, Lennon physically attacked Cavern Club master of ceremonies Bob Wooler for saying "How was your honeymoon, John?" The MC, known for his wordplay and affectionate but cutting remarks, was making a joke, [196] but ten months had passed since Lennon's marriage, and the deferred honeymoon was still two months in the future. [197] Lennon was drunk at the time and the matter was simple: "He called me a queer so I battered his bloody ribs in." [198]

Lennon delighted in mocking Epstein for his homosexuality and for the fact that he was Jewish. [199] When Epstein invited suggestions for the title of his autobiography, Lennon offered Queer Jew on learning of the eventual title, A Cellarful of Noise, he parodied, "More like A Cellarful of Boys". [200] He demanded of a visitor to Epstein's flat, "Have you come to blackmail him? If not, you're the only bugger in London who hasn't." [199] During the recording of "Baby, You're a Rich Man", he sang altered choruses of "Baby, you're a rich fag Jew". [201] [202]

Julian Lennon

During his marriage to Cynthia, Lennon's first son Julian was born at the same time that his commitments with the Beatles were intensifying at the height of Beatlemania. Lennon was touring with the Beatles when Julian was born on 8 April 1963. Julian's birth, like his mother Cynthia's marriage to Lennon, was kept secret because Epstein was convinced that public knowledge of such things would threaten the Beatles' commercial success. Julian recalled that as a small child in Weybridge some four years later, "I was trundled home from school and came walking up with one of my watercolour paintings. It was just a bunch of stars and this blonde girl I knew at school. And Dad said, 'What's this?' I said, 'It's Lucy in the sky with diamonds.'" [203] Lennon used it as the title of a Beatles song, and though it was later reported to have been derived from the initials LSD, Lennon insisted, "It's not an acid song." [204] Lennon was distant from Julian, who felt closer to McCartney than to his father. During a car journey to visit Cynthia and Julian during Lennon's divorce, McCartney composed a song, "Hey Jules", to comfort him. It would evolve into the Beatles song "Hey Jude". Lennon later said, "That's his best song. It started off as a song about my son Julian . he turned it into 'Hey Jude'. I always thought it was about me and Yoko but he said it wasn't." [205]

Lennon's relationship with Julian was already strained, and after Lennon and Ono moved to New York in 1971, Julian did not see his father again until 1973. [206] With Pang's encouragement, arrangements were made for Julian and his mother to visit Lennon in Los Angeles, where they went to Disneyland. [207] Julian started to see his father regularly, and Lennon gave him a drumming part on a Walls and Bridges track. [208] He bought Julian a Gibson Les Paul guitar and other instruments, and encouraged his interest in music by demonstrating guitar chord techniques. [208] Julian recalls that he and his father "got on a great deal better" during the time he spent in New York: "We had a lot of fun, laughed a lot and had a great time in general." [209]

In a Playboy interview with David Sheff shortly before his death, Lennon said, "Sean is a planned child, and therein lies the difference. I don't love Julian any less as a child. He's still my son, whether he came from a bottle of whiskey or because they didn't have pills in those days. He's here, he belongs to me, and he always will." [210] He said he was trying to reestablish a connection with the then 17-year-old, and confidently predicted, "Julian and I will have a relationship in the future." [210] After his death it was revealed that he had left Julian very little in his will. [211]

Yoko Ono

Lennon first met Yoko Ono on 9 November 1966 at the Indica Gallery in London, where Ono was preparing her conceptual art exhibit. They were introduced by gallery owner John Dunbar. [212] Lennon was intrigued by Ono's "Hammer A Nail": patrons hammered a nail into a wooden board, creating the art piece. Although the exhibition had not yet begun, Lennon wanted to hammer a nail into the clean board, but Ono stopped him. Dunbar asked her, "Don't you know who this is? He's a millionaire! He might buy it." According to Lennon's recollection in 1980, Ono had not heard of the Beatles, but she relented on condition that Lennon pay her five shillings, to which Lennon said he replied, "I'll give you an imaginary five shillings and hammer an imaginary nail in." [213] Ono subsequently related that Lennon had taken a bite out of the apple on display in her work Apple, much to her fury. [214] [nb 7]

Ono began to telephone and visit Lennon at his home. When Cynthia asked him for an explanation, Lennon explained that Ono was only trying to obtain money for her "avant-garde bullshit". [217] While his wife was on holiday in Greece in May 1968, Lennon invited Ono to visit. They spent the night recording what would become the Two Virgins album, after which, he said, they "made love at dawn". [218] When Lennon's wife returned home she found Ono wearing her bathrobe and drinking tea with Lennon who simply said, "Oh, hi." [219] Ono became pregnant in 1968 and miscarried a male child on 21 November 1968, [169] a few weeks after Lennon's divorce from Cynthia was granted. [220]

Two years before the Beatles disbanded, Lennon and Ono began public protests against the Vietnam War. They were married in Gibraltar on 20 March 1969, [221] and spent their honeymoon at the Hilton Amsterdam, campaigning with a week-long Bed-In for Peace. They planned another Bed-In in the United States, but were denied entry, [222] so held one instead at the Queen Elizabeth Hotel in Montreal, where they recorded "Give Peace a Chance". [223] They often combined advocacy with performance art, as in their "Bagism", first introduced during a Vienna press conference. Lennon detailed this period in the Beatles song "The Ballad of John and Yoko". [224] Lennon changed his name by deed poll on 22 April 1969, adding "Ono" as a middle name. The brief ceremony took place on the roof of the Apple Corps building, where the Beatles had performed their rooftop concert three months earlier. Although he used the name John Ono Lennon thereafter, some official documents referred to him as John Winston Ono Lennon. [1] The couple settled at Tittenhurst Park at Sunninghill in Berkshire. [225] After Ono was injured in a car accident, Lennon arranged for a king-size bed to be brought to the recording studio as he worked on the Beatles' last album, Abbey Road. [226]

Ono and Lennon moved to New York, to a flat on Bank Street, Greenwich Village. Looking for somewhere with better security, they relocated in 1973 to the more secure Dakota overlooking Central Park at 1 West 72nd Street. [227]

May Pang

ABKCO Industries was formed in 1968 by Allen Klein as an umbrella company to ABKCO Records. Klein hired May Pang as a receptionist in 1969. Through involvement in a project with ABKCO, Lennon and Ono met her the following year. She became their personal assistant. In 1973, after she had been working with the couple for three years, Ono confided that she and Lennon were becoming estranged. She went on to suggest that Pang should begin a physical relationship with Lennon, telling her, "He likes you a lot." Astounded by Ono's proposition, Pang nevertheless agreed to become Lennon's companion. The pair soon left for Los Angeles, beginning an 18-month period he later called his "lost weekend". [137] In Los Angeles, Pang encouraged Lennon to develop regular contact with Julian, whom he had not seen for two years. He also rekindled friendships with Starr, McCartney, Beatles roadie Mal Evans, and Harry Nilsson. While Lennon was drinking with Nilsson, he misunderstood something that Pang had said and attempted to strangle her. Lennon relented only after he was physically restrained by Nilsson. [228]

In June, Lennon and Pang returned to Manhattan in their newly rented penthouse apartment where they prepared a spare room for Julian when he visited them. [228] Lennon, who had been inhibited by Ono in this regard, began to reestablish contact with other relatives and friends. By December, he and Pang were considering a house purchase, and he refused to accept Ono's telephone calls. In January 1975, he agreed to meet Ono, who claimed to have found a cure for smoking. After the meeting, he failed to return home or call Pang. When Pang telephoned the next day, Ono told her that Lennon was unavailable because he was exhausted after a hypnotherapy session. Two days later, Lennon reappeared at a joint dental appointment he was stupefied and confused to such an extent that Pang believed he had been brainwashed. Lennon told Pang that his separation from Ono was now over, although Ono would allow him to continue seeing her as his mistress. [229]

Sean Lennon

Ono had previously suffered three miscarriages in her attempt to have a child with Lennon. When Ono and Lennon were reunited, she became pregnant again. She initially said that she wanted to have an abortion but changed her mind and agreed to allow the pregnancy to continue on the condition that Lennon adopt the role of househusband, which he agreed to do. [230]

Following Sean's birth, Lennon's subsequent hiatus from the music industry would span five years. He had a photographer take pictures of Sean every day of his first year and created numerous drawings for him, which were posthumously published as Real Love: The Drawings for Sean. Lennon later proudly declared, "He didn't come out of my belly but, by God, I made his bones, because I've attended to every meal, and to how he sleeps, and to the fact that he swims like a fish." [231]

Former Beatles

While Lennon remained consistently friendly with Starr during the years that followed the Beatles' break-up in 1970, his relationships with McCartney and Harrison varied. He was initially close to Harrison, but the two drifted apart after Lennon moved to the US in 1971. When Harrison was in New York for his December 1974 Dark Horse tour, Lennon agreed to join him on stage but failed to appear after an argument over Lennon's refusal to sign an agreement that would finally dissolve the Beatles' legal partnership. [232] [nb 8] Harrison later said that when he visited Lennon during his five years away from music, he sensed that Lennon was trying to communicate, but his bond with Ono prevented him. [233] Harrison offended Lennon in 1980 when he published an autobiography that made little mention of him. [234] Lennon told Playboy, "I was hurt by it. By glaring omission . my influence on his life is absolutely zilch . he remembers every two-bit sax player or guitarist he met in subsequent years. I'm not in the book." [235]

Lennon's most intense feelings were reserved for McCartney. In addition to attacking him with the lyrics of "How Do You Sleep?", Lennon argued with him through the press for three years after the group split. The two later began to reestablish something of the close friendship they had once known, and in 1974, they even played music together again before eventually growing apart once more. During McCartney's final visit in April 1976, Lennon said that they watched the episode of Saturday Night Live in which Lorne Michaels made a $3,000 offer to get the Beatles to reunite on the show. [236] According to Lennon, the pair considered going to the studio to make a joke appearance, attempting to claim their share of the money, but they were too tired. [237] Lennon summarised his feelings towards McCartney in an interview three days before his death: "Throughout my career, I've selected to work with . only two people: Paul McCartney and Yoko Ono . That ain't bad picking." [238]

Along with his estrangement from McCartney, Lennon always felt a musical competitiveness with him and kept an ear on his music. During his career break from 1975 until shortly before his death, according to Fred Seaman, Lennon and Ono's assistant at the time, Lennon was content to sit back as long as McCartney was producing what Lennon saw as mediocre material. [239] Lennon took notice when McCartney released "Coming Up" in 1980, which was the year Lennon returned to the studio. "It's driving me crackers!" he jokingly complained, because he could not get the tune out of his head. [239] That same year, Lennon was asked whether the group were dreaded enemies or the best of friends, and he replied that they were neither, and that he had not seen any of them in a long time. But he also said, "I still love those guys. The Beatles are over, but John, Paul, George and Ringo go on." [240]

Lennon and Ono used their honeymoon as a Bed-In for Peace at the Amsterdam Hilton Hotel the March 1969 event attracted worldwide media ridicule. [241] [242] During a second Bed-In three months later at the Queen Elizabeth Hotel in Montreal, [243] Lennon wrote and recorded "Give Peace a Chance". Released as a single, the song was quickly interpreted as an anti-war anthem and sung by a quarter of a million demonstrators against the Vietnam War in Washington, DC, on 15 November, the second Vietnam Moratorium Day. [92] [244] In December, they paid for billboards in 10 cities around the world which declared, in the national language, "War Is Over! If You Want It". [245]

During the year, Lennon and Ono began to support efforts by the family of James Hanratty to prove his innocence. [246] Hanratty had been hanged in 1962. According to Lennon, those who had condemned Hanratty were "the same people who are running guns to South Africa and killing blacks in the streets . The same bastards are in control, the same people are running everything, it's the whole bullshit bourgeois scene." [247] In London, Lennon and Ono staged a "Britain Murdered Hanratty" banner march and a "Silent Protest For James Hanratty", [248] and produced a 40-minute documentary on the case. At an appeal hearing more than thirty years later, Hanratty's conviction was upheld after DNA evidence was found to match. [249]

Lennon and Ono showed their solidarity with the Clydeside UCS workers' work-in of 1971 by sending a bouquet of red roses and a cheque for £5,000. [250] On moving to New York City in August that year, they befriended two of the Chicago Seven, Yippie peace activists Jerry Rubin and Abbie Hoffman. [251] Another political activist, John Sinclair, poet and co-founder of the White Panther Party, was serving ten years in prison for selling two joints of marijuana after previous convictions for possession of the drug. [252] In December 1971 at Ann Arbor, Michigan, 15,000 people attended the "John Sinclair Freedom Rally", a protest and benefit concert with contributions from Lennon, Stevie Wonder, Bob Seger, Bobby Seale of the Black Panther Party, and others. [253] Lennon and Ono, backed by David Peel and Jerry Rubin, performed an acoustic set of four songs from their forthcoming Some Time in New York City album including "John Sinclair", whose lyrics called for his release. The day before the rally, the Michigan Senate passed a bill that significantly reduced the penalties for possession of marijuana and four days later Sinclair was released on an appeal bond. [128] The performance was recorded and two of the tracks later appeared on John Lennon Anthology (1998). [254]

Following the Bloody Sunday incident in Northern Ireland in 1972, in which fourteen unarmed civil rights protesters were shot dead by the British Army, Lennon said that given the choice between the army and the IRA (who were not involved in the incident) he would side with the latter. Lennon and Ono wrote two songs protesting British presence and actions in Ireland for their Some Time in New York City album: "The Luck of the Irish" and "Sunday Bloody Sunday". In 2000, David Shayler, a former member of Britain's domestic security service MI5, suggested that Lennon had given money to the IRA, though this was swiftly denied by Ono. [255] Biographer Bill Harry records that following Bloody Sunday, Lennon and Ono financially supported the production of the film The Irish Tapes, a political documentary with an Irish Republican slant. [256]

According to FBI surveillance reports, and confirmed by Tariq Ali in 2006, Lennon was sympathetic to the International Marxist Group, a Trotskyist group formed in Britain in 1968. [258] However, the FBI considered Lennon to have limited effectiveness as a revolutionary, as he was "constantly under the influence of narcotics". [259]

In 1973, Lennon contributed a limerick called "Why Make It Sad to Be Gay?" to Len Richmond's The Gay Liberation Book. [260] Lennon's last act of political activism was a statement in support of the striking minority sanitation workers in San Francisco on 5 December 1980. He and Ono planned to join the workers' protest on 14 December. [261]

Deportation attempt

Following the impact of "Give Peace a Chance" and "Happy Xmas (War Is Over)" on the anti-war movement, the Nixon administration heard rumours of Lennon's involvement in a concert to be held in San Diego at the same time as the Republican National Convention [262] and tried to have him deported. Nixon believed that Lennon's anti-war activities could cost him his reelection [263] Republican Senator Strom Thurmond suggested in a February 1972 memo that "deportation would be a strategic counter-measure" against Lennon. [264] The next month the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) began deportation proceedings, arguing that his 1968 misdemeanour conviction for cannabis possession in London had made him ineligible for admission to the United States. Lennon spent the next three-and-a-half years in and out of deportation hearings until 8 October 1975, when a court of appeals barred the deportation attempt, stating "the courts will not condone selective deportation based upon secret political grounds". [265] [130] While the legal battle continued, Lennon attended rallies and made television appearances. He and Ono co-hosted The Mike Douglas Show for a week in February 1972, introducing guests such as Jerry Rubin and Bobby Seale to mid-America. [266] In 1972, Bob Dylan wrote a letter to the INS defending Lennon, stating:

John and Yoko add a great voice and drive to the country's so-called art institution. They inspire and transcend and stimulate and by doing so, only help others to see pure light and in doing that, put an end to this dull taste of petty commercialism which is being passed off as Artist Art by the overpowering mass media. Hurray for John and Yoko. Let them stay and live here and breathe. The country's got plenty of room and space. Let John and Yoko stay! [267] [268]

On 23 March 1973, Lennon was ordered to leave the US within 60 days. [269] Ono, meanwhile, was granted permanent residence. In response, Lennon and Ono held a press conference on 1 April 1973 at the New York City Bar Association, where they announced the formation of the state of Nutopia a place with "no land, no boundaries, no passports, only people". [270] Waving the white flag of Nutopia (two handkerchiefs), they asked for political asylum in the US. The press conference was filmed, and appeared in a 2006 documentary, The U.S. vs. John Lennon. [271] [nb 9] Soon after the press conference, Nixon's involvement in a political scandal came to light, and in June the Watergate hearings began in Washington, DC. They led to the president's resignation 14 months later. [273] In December 1974, when he and members of his tour entourage visited the White House, Harrison asked Gerald Ford, Nixon's successor, to intercede in the matter. [274] Ford's administration showed little interest in continuing the battle against Lennon, and the deportation order was overturned in 1975. The following year, Lennon received his green card certifying his permanent residency, and when Jimmy Carter was inaugurated as president in January 1977, Lennon and Ono attended the Inaugural Ball. [273]

FBI surveillance and declassified documents

After Lennon's death, historian Jon Wiener filed a Freedom of Information Act request for FBI files that documented the Bureau's role in the deportation attempt. [275] The FBI admitted it had 281 pages of files on Lennon, but refused to release most of them on the grounds that they contained national security information. In 1983, Wiener sued the FBI with the help of the American Civil Liberties Union of Southern California. It took 14 years of litigation to force the FBI to release the withheld pages. [276] The ACLU, representing Wiener, won a favourable decision in their suit against the FBI in the Ninth Circuit in 1991. [277] The Justice Department appealed the decision to the Supreme Court in April 1992, but the court declined to review the case. [278] In 1997, respecting President Bill Clinton's newly instigated rule that documents should be withheld only if releasing them would involve "foreseeable harm", the Justice Department settled most of the outstanding issues outside court by releasing all but 10 of the contested documents. [278]

Wiener published the results of his 14-year campaign in January 2000. Gimme Some Truth: The John Lennon FBI Files contained facsimiles of the documents, including "lengthy reports by confidential informants detailing the daily lives of anti-war activists, memos to the White House, transcripts of TV shows on which Lennon appeared, and a proposal that Lennon be arrested by local police on drug charges". [279] The story is told in the documentary The US vs. John Lennon. The final 10 documents in Lennon's FBI file, which reported on his ties with London anti-war activists in 1971 and had been withheld as containing "national security information provided by a foreign government under an explicit promise of confidentiality", were released in December 2006. They contained no indication that the British government had regarded Lennon as a serious threat one example of the released material was a report that two prominent British leftists had hoped Lennon would finance a left-wing bookshop and reading room. [280]

Beatles biographer Bill Harry wrote that Lennon began drawing and writing creatively at an early age with the encouragement of his uncle. He collected his stories, poetry, cartoons and caricatures in a Quarry Bank High School exercise book that he called the Daily Howl. The drawings were often of crippled people, and the writings satirical, and throughout the book was an abundance of wordplay. According to classmate Bill Turner, Lennon created the Daily Howl to amuse his best friend and later Quarrymen bandmate Pete Shotton, to whom he would show his work before he let anyone else see it. Turner said that Lennon "had an obsession for Wigan Pier. It kept cropping up", and in Lennon's story A Carrot in a Potato Mine, "the mine was at the end of Wigan Pier." Turner described how one of Lennon's cartoons depicted a bus stop sign annotated with the question, "Why?" Above was a flying pancake, and below, "a blind man wearing glasses leading along a blind dog – also wearing glasses". [281]

Lennon's love of wordplay and nonsense with a twist found a wider audience when he was 24. Harry writes that In His Own Write (1964) was published after "Some journalist who was hanging around the Beatles came to me and I ended up showing him the stuff. They said, 'Write a book' and that's how the first one came about". Like the Daily Howl it contained a mix of formats including short stories, poetry, plays and drawings. One story, "Good Dog Nigel", tells the tale of "a happy dog, urinating on a lamp post, barking, wagging his tail – until he suddenly hears a message that he will be killed at three o'clock". The Times Literary Supplement considered the poems and stories "remarkable . also very funny . the nonsense runs on, words and images prompting one another in a chain of pure fantasy". Book Week reported, "This is nonsense writing, but one has only to review the literature of nonsense to see how well Lennon has brought it off. While some of his homonyms are gratuitous word play, many others have not only double meaning but a double edge." Lennon was not only surprised by the positive reception, but that the book was reviewed at all, and suggested that readers "took the book more seriously than I did myself. It just began as a laugh for me". [282]

In combination with A Spaniard in the Works (1965), In His Own Write formed the basis of the stage play The John Lennon Play: In His Own Write, co-adapted by Victor Spinetti and Adrienne Kennedy. After negotiations between Lennon, Spinetti and the artistic director of the National Theatre, Sir Laurence Olivier, the play opened at The Old Vic in 1968. Lennon and Ono attended the opening night performance, their second public appearance together. [283] In 1969, Lennon wrote "Four in Hand", a skit based on his teenage experiences of group masturbation, for Kenneth Tynan's play Oh! Calcutta! [284] After Lennon's death, further works were published, including Skywriting by Word of Mouth (1986), Ai: Japan Through John Lennon's Eyes: A Personal Sketchbook (1992), with Lennon's illustrations of the definitions of Japanese words, and Real Love: The Drawings for Sean (1999). The Beatles Anthology (2000) also presented examples of his writings and drawings.

Instruments played

Lennon played a mouth organ during a bus journey to visit his cousin in Scotland the music caught the driver's ear. Impressed, the driver told Lennon of a harmonica he could have if he came to Edinburgh the following day, where one had been stored in the bus depot since a passenger had left it on a bus. [285] The professional instrument quickly replaced Lennon's toy. He would continue to play the harmonica, often using the instrument during the Beatles' Hamburg years, and it became a signature sound in the group's early recordings. His mother taught him how to play the banjo, later buying him an acoustic guitar. At 16, he played rhythm guitar with the Quarrymen. [286]

As his career progressed, he played a variety of electric guitars, predominantly the Rickenbacker 325, Epiphone Casino and Gibson J-160E, and, from the start of his solo career, the Gibson Les Paul Junior. [287] [288] Double Fantasy producer Jack Douglas claimed that since his Beatle days Lennon habitually tuned his D-string slightly flat, so his Aunt Mimi could tell which guitar was his on recordings. [289] Occasionally he played a six-string bass guitar, the Fender Bass VI, providing bass on some Beatles numbers ("Back in the U.S.S.R.", "The Long and Winding Road", "Helter Skelter") that occupied McCartney with another instrument. [290] His other instrument of choice was the piano, on which he composed many songs, including "Imagine", described as his best-known solo work. [291] His jamming on a piano with McCartney in 1963 led to the creation of the Beatles' first US number one, "I Want to Hold Your Hand". [292] In 1964, he became one of the first British musicians to acquire a Mellotron keyboard, though it was not heard on a Beatles recording until "Strawberry Fields Forever" in 1967. [293]

Vocal style

The British critic Nik Cohn observed of Lennon, "He owned one of the best pop voices ever, rasped and smashed and brooding, always fierce." Cohn wrote that Lennon, performing "Twist and Shout", would "rant his way into total incoherence, half rupture himself." [294] When the Beatles recorded the song, the final track during the mammoth one-day session that produced the band's 1963 debut album, Please Please Me, Lennon's voice, already compromised by a cold, came close to giving out. Lennon said, "I couldn't sing the damn thing, I was just screaming." [295] In the words of biographer Barry Miles, "Lennon simply shredded his vocal cords in the interests of rock 'n' roll." [296] The Beatles' producer, George Martin, tells how Lennon "had an inborn dislike of his own voice which I could never understand. He was always saying to me: 'DO something with my voice! . put something on it . Make it different.'" [297] Martin obliged, often using double-tracking and other techniques.

As his Beatles era segued into his solo career, his singing voice found a widening range of expression. Biographer Chris Gregory writes of Lennon "tentatively beginning to expose his insecurities in a number of acoustic-led 'confessional' ballads, so beginning the process of 'public therapy' that will eventually culminate in the primal screams of 'Cold Turkey' and the cathartic John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band." [298] Music critic Robert Christgau called this Lennon's "greatest vocal performance . from scream to whine, is modulated electronically . echoed, filtered, and double tracked." [299] David Stuart Ryan described Lennon's vocal delivery as ranging from "extreme vulnerability, sensitivity and even naivety" to a hard "rasping" style. [300] Wiener too described contrasts, saying the singer's voice can be "at first subdued soon it almost cracks with despair". [301] Music historian Ben Urish recalled hearing the Beatles' Ed Sullivan Show performance of "This Boy" played on the radio a few days after Lennon's murder: "As Lennon's vocals reached their peak . it hurt too much to hear him scream with such anguish and emotion. But it was my emotions I heard in his voice. Just like I always had." [302]

Music historians Schinder and Schwartz wrote of the transformation in popular music styles that took place between the 1950s and the 1960s. They said that the Beatles' influence cannot be overstated: having "revolutionised the sound, style, and attitude of popular music and opened rock and roll's doors to a tidal wave of British rock acts", the group then "spent the rest of the 1960s expanding rock's stylistic frontiers". [303] Liam Gallagher and his group Oasis were among the many who acknowledged the band's influence he identified Lennon as a hero. In 1999, he named his first son Lennon Gallagher in tribute. [304] On National Poetry Day in 1999, the BBC conducted a poll to identify the UK's favourite song lyric and announced "Imagine" as the winner. [116]

In 1997, Yoko Ono and the BMI Foundation established an annual music competition programme for songwriters of contemporary musical genres to honour John Lennon's memory and his large creative legacy. [305] Over $400,000 have been given through BMI Foundation's John Lennon Scholarships to talented young musicians in the United States. [305]

In a 2006 Guardian article, Jon Wiener wrote: "For young people in 1972, it was thrilling to see Lennon's courage in standing up to [US President] Nixon. That willingness to take risks with his career, and his life, is one reason why people still admire him today." [306] For music historians Urish and Bielen, Lennon's most significant effort was "the self-portraits . in his songs [which] spoke to, for, and about, the human condition." [307]

In 2013, Downtown Music Publishing signed a publishing administration agreement for the US with Lenono Music and Ono Music, home to the song catalogues of John Lennon and Yoko Ono respectively. Under the terms of the agreement, Downtown represents Lennon's solo works, including "Imagine", "Instant Karma (We All Shine On)", "Power to the People", "Happy Xmas (War Is Over)", "Jealous Guy", "(Just Like) Starting Over" and others. [308]

Lennon continues to be mourned throughout the world and has been the subject of numerous memorials and tributes. In 2002, the airport in Lennon's home town was renamed the Liverpool John Lennon Airport. [309] On what would have been Lennon's 70th birthday in 2010, Cynthia and Julian Lennon unveiled the John Lennon Peace Monument in Chavasse Park, Liverpool. [310] The sculpture, entitled Peace & Harmony, exhibits peace symbols and carries the inscription "Peace on Earth for the Conservation of Life · In Honour of John Lennon 1940–1980". [311] In December 2013, the International Astronomical Union named one of the craters on Mercury after Lennon. [312]


The Lennon–McCartney songwriting partnership is regarded as one of the most influential and successful of the 20th century. As performer, writer or co-writer, Lennon had 25 number one singles in the US Hot 100 chart. [nb 10] His album sales in the US stand at 14 million units. [318] Double Fantasy was his best-selling album, [319] at three million shipments in the US. [320] Released shortly before his death, it won the 1981 Grammy Award for Album of the Year. [321] The following year, the BRIT Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music was given to Lennon. [322]

Participants in a 2002 BBC poll voted him eighth of "100 Greatest Britons". [323] Between 2003 and 2008, Rolling Stone recognised Lennon in several reviews of artists and music, ranking him fifth of "100 Greatest Singers of All Time" [324] and 38th of "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", [325] and his albums John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band and Imagine, 22nd and 76th respectively of "Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time". [325] [326] He was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) with the other Beatles in 1965 (returned in 1969). [327] [328] Lennon was posthumously inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1987 [329] and into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994. [330]



(JOB 41:11, PSALM 74:14, ISAIAH 27:1 Apocalypse 2:24).



O JEHOVAH , our JEHOVAH , how majestic is your name in all the earth (Psalm 8:9).



"And he showed me JOSHUA the high priest standing before the angel of JEHOVAH, and SATAN standing
at his right hand to oppose him. And JEHOVAH said unto Satan, "JEHOVAH rebuke thee, O Satan
even JEHOVAH that hath chosen Jer usa lem rebuke thee" (Zechariah 3:1-2).

Saint Paul said "we (Christians) have a great high priest, JOSHUA the Son of Elohim" (Hebrews 4:14) .


Around 1730 BC, the Patriarch Jacob or Israel predicted that his nation would endure until the Messiah came:
"The sceptre shall not depart from JUDAH , nor a lawgiver from his loins, UNTIL SHILOH COMES
and unto him shall the gathering of the people be" (Genesis 49:10).

"When JUDAH saw her (Tamar) he thought she was a harlot (prostitute)
because she had covered her face " (Genesis 38:15).

The Prophet Malachi predicted that Elijah the Prophet would come before Shiloh!
John the Baptist fulfilled that prophecy by coming in the spirit and power of Elijah!

King David began reigning when he was 30-years-old , and he reigned for 40 years (II Samuel 5:4).
Shiloh was manifested to Israel when he was 30-years-old (Saint Luke 3:3), and exactly 40 years
later the Roman legions destroyed Israel at that location forever (Amos 5:2, Daniel 9:26).

JUDAH ISCARIOT —one of the 12 Apostles—is a remarkable type of ancient and modern Israel. Judah
betrayed the Messiah for 30 pieces of silver, and then self-destructed by committing suicide
(Jeremiah 17:1, Zechariah 11:12, Saint Matthew 27:3).

In 70 AD, ancient Israel committed suicide by taking up arms against the mighty Roman Empire,
and modern "suicidal Jews" are still very eager to trigger Armageddon and join Judah in Hades!!



Joshua ben David warned the new Jer usa lem repeatedly to beware of fake "Jews," or Kosher Nostra,
who deny that the Messiah has come: "I know the blasphemy of those who say they are Jews
and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan " (Apocalypse 2:9, 3:9).

By giving the Jewish Messiah the Latin name JESUS, it also slanders the Virgin Miriam
because it implies that she committed fornication with Tiberius Julius Pantera!

In Holy Scripture, the divine Holy Spirit is symbolized by 7 Eyes, 7 Lamps of Fire, and 7 Horns:

"For behold the STONE that I have laid before JOSHUA : upon the STONE are SEVEN EYES .
Behold, I will engrave its inscription," says JEHOVAH of Hosts, "and I will remove the
iniquity of that land in one day" (Zechariah 3:9, Apocalypse 4:5, 5:6).

The Reformation began on October 31, 1517, when German monk Saint Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses to the Castle Church door in Wittenberg, Germany. That was one of the greatest events of the past 1000 years. Saint Martin made a translation of the Bible from Greek and Hebrew into German. Soon all the countries of Europe followed his example by translating the Scriptures into their languages. For the first time in history, the recently invented printing press made the Word of JEHOVAH available to all the people.

When Saint Martin was excommunicated by Pope Leo X, he began an intensive study of the Book of Daniel and the Apocalypse of Saint John. It was from a study of those 2 books that led him to write his magnum opus entitled On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church.

The end of the Babylonian Captivity of the Jews in 457 BC led to the rebirth of Israel, and started the 490-year countdown to the First Coming of the Messiah. That explosive book, published in 1520, sent shockwaves through the underworld, and the fallout soon reached fake "Roman Emperor" Charles V. As a result, he summoned the Saint to the Diet of Worms, to publicly disallow the book, and be reconciled to the Church of Roma.

Next year is the 1990th anniversary (30 AD�) of the Death and Resurrection of the Messiah, at Golgotha, on the Mount of Olives!!

In 313, Romulus and Remus were renamed Saints Peter and Paul!

In 1119, 9 "Fighting Monks" formed the Knights Templar in Jerusalem!

In March 1945, the Counter-Reformation Nazis tested a small thermonuclear bomb just a stone's throw from the Wartburg Castle!!

In May 1521, at the Diet of Worms, Luther made his courageous defense of On The Babylonian Captivity of the Church . For that reason, Elector Frederick the Wise feared for the life of the Reformer, and his soldiers "kidnapped" the Saint and hid him away in the Wartburg Castle. While "imprisoned" there, Luther translated the Bible from Hebrew and Greek into German. That is the place where he also threw the inkwell at the Devil.

Saint Martin Luther's desk and the wall
where he threw the inkwell at the Devil.

The Wartburg Castle, in Thuringia, is a sacred site and a place of pilgrimage for all true Christians.

The "big bang" Jesuits would have loved to do a Guy Fawkes on the Castle, but it was shielded by angels, and the surrounding hills.

On the left can be seen Luther's desk, and the spot where he threw the inkwell at the Devil. Over the centuries, souvenir hunters have removed chunks of the wall.

Ground zero was a valley, just a stone's
throw from the Wartburg Castle.

In 1525, Saint Martin took another step which caused consternation at the Vatican—he married his sweetheart—escaped nun Saint Katharine von Bora.

The wedding of Saints Martin and
Katharine, Wittenberg, June 13, 1525.

After his escape from the spiritual Babylon, Saint Martin soon discovered that monks and nuns were nowhere mentioned in the Holy Bible!

In 1523, to inaugurate the modern "women's-lib" movement, he helped a group of 12 nuns escape from the Nimbschen Convent. One of the escapees, Katharine von Bora, became his loving wife and helpmeet.

Saints Martin and Katharine became the perfect partnership , as they devoted their lives to their 4 children, and demolishing the thick walls of Babylon!

Saint Katharine Luther
(1499 – 1552).

It is a good thing that there was no German Equal Wrongs Amendment in force at that time. Otherwise, the gender roles would have been completely reversed, and there would have been no perfect partnership between the 2 saints. Monks and nuns are the true transgenders because they are obsessed with SEX . . . and yet they are forbidden to marry and have children (I Timothy 4:3).

The spiritual Babylon is the Papacy, which began its rise in 313 AD, and received a mighty blow in 1517. However, the spiritual Babylon has a TWIN . . . and her HQ is in LONDON . . . Babylon on the Thames!!

In 337, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, began in Roma with Pope Julius I.

In 1520, Babylon the Great received a mighty blow from the pen of Saint Martin Luther.

The second Babylon the Great began with the founding of the East India Company in 1600.

The Holy Bible predicted the time of the Messiah's birth (Daniel 9:25) the location of his birth (Micah 5:2), and his Holy Name (Zechariah 6:11-13). The secret of Samson's great strength lay in his Nazarite vow not to cut his hair, and the Messiah's great strength lay in his Holy Name.

Over 3500 years ago, on Mount Sinai, JEHOVAH gave Moses the Hebrew ALPHABET. Today, most nations use an ALPHABET .

4 times in the Book of Revelation the Messiah calls Himself
Alpha and Omega , so those 2 Greek alphabet letters
be present in his Holy Name!!

The name JESUS is Latin, IESOUS in Greek, and it cannot be the name of the Messiah because it is missing 2 vital letters. Under Roman occupation, the Virgin Miriam would never give her son a Latin name because that would imply that the child was illegitimate. Illegitimacy was the very charge leveled against the Messiah because the rulers didn't believe he was born of a Virgin and therefore JEHOVAH (Isaiah 9:6).

Real Jewish parents were very, very traditional about naming their children. The most popular names for boys were: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Joshua, David. The most popular names for girls were: Sarah, Rebekah, Rachel, Miriam, Deborah, Ruth, Abigail, etc., etc. Names ending in US, such as Julius, Tiberius, Antonius, Pius etc., etc., are Roman names. Under Roman occupation, the Jews did not give their children Roman names. One of the most famous, or infamous, Roman Emperors was named Jesus Constantine.

The last form of monarchy, or tyrannical government, is symbolized by the 10-toes of the giant.

To make the prophecy plainer, Winston Winston's grandmother, Queen Victoria, had 10 children: 9 with Prince Albert and one top secret girl in Switzerland.

The Great Pyramid was built by antediluvian twins to preserve a written record of that technologically advanced but highly corrupt civilization.

"Speak to the (stationary flat) earth, and
it shall teach thee (not to poison
it with deadly radiation)"
(Job 12:8).

The Grand Canyon in theNew Je rusa lem is the most stunning visual aid that proves the veracity of the Book of Genesis.


Jacob (Jacques) Jordaens was born on 19 May 1593, the first of eleven children, to the wealthy linen merchant Jacob Jordaens Sr. and Barbara van Wolschaten in Antwerp. [5] Little is known about Jordaens' early education. It can be assumed that he received the advantages of the education usually provided for children of his social class. This assumption is supported by his clear handwriting, his competence in French and in his knowledge of mythology. Jordaens familiarity with biblical subjects is evident in his many religious paintings, and his personal interest with the Bible was strengthened by his later conversion from Catholicism to Protestantism. [6]

Like Rubens, he studied under Adam van Noort, who was his only teacher. During this time Jordaens lived in Van Noort's house in the Everdijstraat and became very close to the rest of the family. [7] After eight years of training with Van Noort, he enrolled in the Guild of St. Luke as a "waterschilder", or watercolor artist. [6] This medium was often used for preparing tapestry cartoons in the seventeenth century. [8] although examples of his earliest watercolour works are no longer extant. In the same year as his entry into the guild, 1616, he married his teacher's eldest daughter, Anna Catharina van Noort, with whom he had three children. In 1618, Jordaens bought a house in Hoogstraat (the area in Antwerp that he grew up in). He would then later buy the adjoining house to expand his household and workspace in 1639, mimicking Rubens' house built two decades earlier. He lived and worked here until his death in 1678. [9]

Jordaens never made the traditional trip to Italy to study classical and Renaissance art. Despite this, he made many efforts to study prints or works of Italian masters available in northern Europe. For example, Jordaens is known to have studied Titian, Veronese, Caravaggio, and Bassano, either through prints, copies or originals (such as Caravaggio's Madonna of the Rosary). His work, however, betrays local traditions, especially the genre traditions of Pieter Bruegel the Elder, in honestly depicting Flemish life with authenticity and showing common people in the act of celebratory expressions of life. [10] His commissions frequently came from wealthy local Flemish patrons and clergy, although later in his career he worked for courts and governments across Europe. Besides a large output of monumental oil paintings he was a prolific tapestry designer, a career that reflects his early training as a "watercolour" painter. [5]

Jordaens' importance can also be seen by his number of pupils the Guild of St. Luke records fifteen official pupils from 1621 to 1667, but six others were recorded as pupils in court documents and not the Guild records, so it is probable that he had more students than officially recorded. Among them were his cousin and his son Jacob. Like Rubens and other artists at that time, Jordaens' studio relied on his assistants and pupils in the production of his paintings. Not many of these pupils went on to fame themselves, [11] however a position in Jordaens' studio was highly desirable for young artists from across Europe. [12]

Influence of Rubens Edit

Jordaens was greatly influenced by Peter Paul Rubens who occasionally employed him to reproduce small sketches in a larger format. After the death of Rubens, Jordaens advanced to the position of one of the most admired painters in Antwerp. [13] Like Rubens, Jordaens relied on a warm palette, naturalism, and a mastery of chiaroscuro and tenebrism. Jordaens was only moderately successful as a portrait painter but excelled in representations of the base character of humanity. His classically inspired peasant themes and large-scale moralistic genre scenes influenced Jan Steen. Although Jacob Jordaens did not specialize, he often repeated a theme based on a proverb that depicted a wide range of characters of a variety of ages, crowded in a festive scene around a banquet table. These humorous pieces have a sense of coarseness. [5] While Jordaens drew upon Rubens' motifs throughout his career, his work is differentiated by a tendency to greater realism, a crowding of the surface of his compositions, and a preference for the burlesque, even within the context of religious and mythological subjects. [13] Prometheus, c. 1640 is an example of the influence of both Rubens and Frans Snyders on Jacob Jordaens. While he drew inspiration from their collaboration Prometheus Bound, c. 1611–12, Jordaens' version is a more hopeful narrative.

Subjects Edit

In addition to being a well-known portrait painter, Jordaens also employed his pencil in biblical, mythological, and allegorical subjects and even etched a number of plates. Although primarily a history painter, he also painted illustrations of Flemish proverbs, such as the "Old Sing so the Young Twitter", and depictions of Flemish festivals, for example "The King Drinks". [5] Several of his works hint at a passion for animal painting. He often included a variety of animals, most likely drawn from life, including cows, horses, poultry, cats, dogs, and sheep. His life drawings of both animals and people were used and referenced throughout his life. [14] After Rubens' death in 1640 Jordaens became Antwerp's new leading artist. [15] Only after achieving this status did Jordaens receive royal commissions, predominantly from the north. [5] He also received a commission from Ruben's heirs to finish a Hercules and an Andromeda for Philip IV of Spain.

In 1635–40, when Rubens was ill from gout, Jordaens was commissioned to use Rubens' sketches, and work on the decorations for the triumphal entry of the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand, the new Governor of the Spanish Netherlands, for his arrival in Antwerp in 1635. Although the works are lost, Jordaens was commissioned in 1639–40 by Charles I of England to finish decorating the Queen's House at Greenwich, a commission which was originally given to Rubens, who was unable to execute due to his poor health. [5]

Jordaens also played his part in a collaborative effort to decorate the Torre de la Parada, done between 1636 and 1681. [16] Two works in the series attributed to Jordaens are Apollo and Pan (1637), made after a sketch by Rubens, and Vertummus and Pomona (1638). [16] Further contributions debated include Fall of the Titans, Marriage of Peleus and Thetis, and Cadmus Sowing the Dragons Teeth. [16] In 1661, he was asked to paint three, fairly large lunettes for the newly constructed Amsterdam Town Hall. [5]

At the end of Jordaens' career between 1652 and 1678 his creative and artistic ability had deteriorated. He moved from vibrant colours to a gray-blue palette, accented at times with a dull brown, and applied paint so thinly that the canvas could be seen. However, there were few exceptions to this (such as the aforementioned religious paintings he produced after he had converted to Protestantism), most notable being the History of Psyche that he did for his own house. [5]

Religion Edit

The Protestant religion was forbidden in Antwerp, which at the time was still Spanish-occupied territory. Towards the end of his lifetime Jordaens converted to Reformed Protestantism, but continued to accept commissions to decorate Catholic churches. [5] [17] Jordaens was fined 200 pounds and 15 shillings for scandalous or heretical writings between 1651 and 1658.

Death and burial Edit

Jordaens died of the mysterious Antwerp disease ('zweetziekte' or 'polderkoorts' in Dutch) in October 1678, which, on the same day, also killed his unmarried daughter Elizabeth, who had lived with him. Their bodies were buried together under one tombstone in the Protestant cemetery at Putte, a village just north of the Belgium border, where his wife Catharina had been put to rest earlier. [ citation needed ] A monument was erected in Putte in 1877, dedicated to and containing the tombstones of Jordaens and two of his painting colleagues, Simon de Pape (I) and Adriaan van Stalbemt. It stands on the location of the little Protestant church and cemetery, both of which were demolished years earlier. The bust on top of the monument was made by Jef Lambeaux.

One year after his death, Jacob Jordaens' son donated "twenty-five Flemish pounds to the Camer van den Huysarmen in Antwerp." [5] Also included in this donation was The Washing and Anointing of the Body of Christ which was given to an orphanage of girls. Apparently this was all done in following correspondence with a will that Jacob Jordaens left behind, a document yet to be found. [5] Even without the finding of Jordaen's will, his kindness has been recognized by those who knew him. There are many other found documents that note his admiration by others.

The Adoration of the Shepherds Edit

The Adoration of the Shepherds (1616, 1618) depicts the Virgin Mary preparing to suckle the Christ Child while He is adored by Flemish-looking shepherds. The scene is limited to five figures who, with the exception of Christ, are shown in half length emphasizing the intimacy of the scene.

Prior to 1616, Jordaens had been interested in the bright, clear palette of Mannerism. However, in this image, he experiments with using light, rather than color, as the primary means to mold figures in space. This is evidence of his interest in Caravaggio. The principle light source in The Adoration of the Shepherds is a candle held by St. Joseph. This reflects influence of Adam Elsheimer, who is known for placing a light source in the centre of his compositions. [5] Perhaps another influence of Caravaggio may be cited in Jordaens' use of realism. "The Virgin and Child are rendered in rustic simplicity, and are not even slightly idealized." [5]

Jordaens painted at least six other renditions of the Adoration of the Shepherds. He usually grouped these half-length figures closely together and cropped the scene so that the viewer focused their attention solely on the figures. This compositional approach sought to intensify the narrative and accentuate the characters' expression.

The Flight of Lot and his Family from Sodom Edit

Inspired by Ruebens, Jordaens painted his iconoclastic duplicate in oils on an 66 by 78 inches (1,700 mm × 2,000 mm) canvas in 1620. Currently housed at The National Museum of Western Art in Tokyo, the Flemish painting depicts the tale found in the Book of Genesis. [18]

The Satyr and the Peasant Edit

This particular scene, of which Jordaens painted many versions, illustrates a moralizing fable from Aesop's Fables. The story begins with a man and a satyr. One cold day, as they talked, the man put his fingers to his mouth and blew on them. When the satyr asked the reason for this, the man said that he did it to warm his hands. Later on, when they sat down to eat, the man raised his dish of hot food towards his mouth and blew on it. When the satyr again inquired the reason, he said that he did it to cool the food. The satyr then informs the man, "I can no longer consider you as a friend, a fellow who with the same breath blows hot and cold." [19] The moral of this story is the duality of human nature, although some believe that Jordaens chose this story not for his interest in its moral lesson, but for his interest in rendering a peasant scene. [20]

The particular moment which Jordaens depicts in his painting is when the satyr declares that he cannot trust the man. The man is eating while the satyr rises abruptly with raised hand prior to leaving the man's home. [21] Jordaens chooses to place the scene inside a farmhouse, complete with a bull, dog, cat, and rooster integrated around the furniture and figures. A variety of age groups are represented around the table a young boy stands behind the man's chair, an old woman holds a young child, while a youthful woman peers over the Satyr's shoulder.

Characteristic of Jordaens' artistic style is the manner in which all the figures are pushed forward toward the front of the composition, crowded together in this small space. Jordaens uses tenebrism and chiaroscuro to create dramatic lighting, which illuminates certain figures in the scene, such as the baby in the old woman's lap. Jordaens creates a sense of naturalism with the depiction of the dirty feet of the seated peasant seated in the foreground, linking him with the Caravaggistic tendencies in Flemish art of the time. Jordaens created two versions of this subject around 1620–21. [21] For this version, it seems he may have used the same female sitter for The Satyr and the Peasant as he did for The Adoration of the Shepherds, and it is thought that Jordaens used this painting as instruction for his assistants and pupils, as many versions and copies of the scene have been found which bear the same style, but without the master's stamp. [22]

Candaules, Nyssia, and Gyges Edit

This image illustrates Herodotus's version of the tale of Gyges. The moral of this story is the duty of a husband to protect his wife. When he violates that duty tragedy will result in this case Candaules dies. Jordaens chose this story for his interest in its moral lesson.

The particular moment which Jordaens depicts in his painting is when Nyssia, having finished disrobing, is getting into bed, and has not yet detected her violation. Both men are shown watching from hiding, a departure from the original story as told by Herodotus.

Jordaens placed the scene inside bedroom, complete with a dog, and toilet items, integrated around the furniture and figures.

Characteristic of Jordaens' artistic style is the use of tenebrism and chiaroscuro to create dramatic lighting, which illuminates Nyssia in the scene, highlighting her shoulders and buttocks. Jordaens creates a sense of naturalism with the depiction of the dog seated in the left foreground on the stool.

Self-portrait with Wife and Daughter Elizabeth Edit

Here we see Jordaens with his wife Catherine van Noort, his eldest child Elizabeth and a servant. The painting has been dated around 1621–22 because Elizabeth appears to be about 4 years old and she was born in 1617. [23] Everyone in the painting is looking out at the viewer as if to invite them in to join the group. Jardin d'amour was an ancient tradition that Jordaens has represented in his family portrait.

We see that he has also thrown a fair amount of symbolism into the painting to help give it meaning. "The intertwined vines behind the couple symbolize the inseparability of husband and wife." [23] Elizabeth is holding fruit in her hand which is symbolic of love and the flowers she has in her basket reflect innocence and purity." [23] In the upper left there is a perched parrot which depicts marital fidelity. Another animal located in the lower right is a dog representing faithfulness and trust." [23]

This is one of the first examples of RA-like findings in Dutch art. Little evidence of rheumatoid arthritis like disease was noted in art or skeletal remains before the 17th century in Europe and Northern Africa. Findings suggestive of rheumatoid arthritis appear in 17th century Dutch art. Detail from La Familia de Jordaens en un Jardín by Jacob Jordaens show swelling of the metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints. [24]

St. Peter Finding the Tribute Money Edit

This work, most likely painted circa 1623 for the Amsterdam iron and weapons merchant Louis de Geer I, represents the story from Matthew 17: 24–27, in which Jesus tells Peter to catch a fish and inside he will find money to pay tribute in Capernaum. The composition is crowded, with the centre of action happening inside the boat. Peter and the other apostles are seen at the right side of the painting, peering down as Peter draws a fish from the water. These figures do not acknowledge the viewer. However, other figures look out of the painting at the viewer: the woman with her child and the man using an oar to launch the boat. Most figures, however, are consumed each in their own task, whether that be finding the fish, working to heave to and sail the boat, or sit as passengers awaiting the destination. The variety of human expression stems from Jordaens' studies of heads, many of which are recognizable from his other works. [25] The recent restoration treatment of the painting was accompanied by a large and fully illustrated book which goes very deep under the surface of the image and lays out the various approaches and results of the most recent research, giving a thorough picture of Jordaens, his works and his time. [26]

The Martyrdom of St. Apollonia Edit

The church of St. Augustine, located in Antwerp, had three altars. Each altar held one large painting by either Rubens, van Dyck, or Jordaens. All three paintings were created in 1628. [27] Rubens' Madonna and Child Adored by Saints hung over the high or main altar in the centre. The altar on the left contained van Dyck's St. Augustine in Ecstasy, and finally Jordaens' The Martyrdom of St. Apollonia hung over the altar located to the right. [27] Jordaens' rendition of the martyrdom of St. Apollonia, who jumped into a fire rather than denounce her faith in the 3rd century, is crowded and dramatic. Rubens, van Dyck and Jordaens were Antwerp's greatest Baroque painters and the only time that these three painters collaborated simultaneously was during the commission of the church of St. Augustine. Together they tied the themes of each painting to one another. [27] Rubens' piece was of the Virgin surrounded by saints, van Dyck and Jordaens each painted saints which frame the Virgin. The saintly images invited the viewer to become closer to heaven and God through either martyrdom or monasticism. [27]

The Infant Jupiter Fed by the Goat Amalthea Edit

At the foot of a gentle slope, The Infant Jupiter Fed by the Goat Amalthea (1630–35) is set in a landscape. The focus of the composition is on the nymph Andrastea, whose pale nakedness is contrasted by the darker hues of the other figures. She sits on ground with her legs folded partly underneath her and a cloth draped around her hips. She has one hand on the back of the goat Amalethea and the other pulls on the goat's udder, squirting milk into a dish. The infant Jupiter sits behind her, holding an empty bottle and crying for food. In an attempt to distract Jupiter, a satyr pulls a branch. An engraving after the canvas by Schelte a Bolswert clarifies the moral significance of the subject: according to the Latin inscription on the print, the goat's milk Jupiter was fed as a child was responsible for the god's notorious infidelity. [28]

The King Drinks Edit

Jordaens painted several versions of this subject, including one c. 1640 work in the Royal Museum of Art, Brussels. Epiphany is celebrated in Flanders on 6 January. It is a celebration of food, wine and merriment that is shared with family. One person gets to be king for the evening, which as Jordaens thoughtfully depicts as the eldest person in the room. The rest of his subjects are assigned by him. [29] Jordaens also made another version of the painting as there are many paintings on this particular topic. In one version over 17 people are shown in the painting and they are all tightly packed together. In the other version they are closer to the picture plane and more spaced. The painting shows that emotions are running high, with people's extremely boisterous expressions. [29] There seems to be a brawl that is about to erupt and the expression of the man who is vomiting seems all too pitiful. Jordaens uses this painting to express his distaste for drunkenness with the motto inscribed at the top that translates "Nothing seems more like a madman than a drunkard." [30]

As the Old Sing, So the Young Pipe Edit

As the Old Sang, So the Young Pipe (c.1638–1640) is considered a companion to The King Drinks (Louvre, Paris). Both paintings are of a moralizing nature, have near identical measurements, and related styles. [31] As the Old Sang, So the Young Pipe shows three generations of wealthy Antwerp burghers sitting around a table making music. Being a popular theme among Jordaens and his clients, several versions of this painting were created. In the version shown Jordaens' father-in-law Adam van Noort is depicted as the old man. In this popular painting genre, elderly and middle-aged figures are always portrayed singing and creating music, as children "pipe" along. [31] The title is based on a popular proverb from the book Spiegel van den Ouden ende Nieuwen Tijdt, an Emblem book by Jacob Cats published in 1632. The Dutch proverb is Zo de ouden zongen, zo piepen de jongen, referring to the habit of birds to echo the pipe, or peeping chirp of their parents. Cats, a Calvinist, translated the proverb into a moralizing message parents must be mindful of their actions and words, because children will copy their elders. [31] The Dutch word for peep is just as in English, very close to the word pipe, and in this version, the bagpipe and flute pipe are used, but in some versions, the children are portrayed smoking a pipe, which even in those days was considered unhealthy for children. Jan Steen also used a bagpipe and flute in his paintings on the same subject from around 1668 and 1670, even depicting the poem by Cats in the former of the two scenes. In his paintings however, Jordaens conveys this moralizing message as well as the idea that younger generations succeed their elders. The owl, considered the bird of the night, perched on the older woman's wicker chair, serves as a memento mori, a reminder of mortality. [31]

Prometheus Edit

Jordaens's 1640 painting Prometheus (depiction of the mythological tale of the titan Prometheus who had his liver pecked out by an eagle each day only to regenerate and begin the cycle anew the next day. [32] Prometheus was punished for his audacity by Zeus for having given fire to man, not just in its physical form, but also in the fire of reason, which can be related to man's creativity in arts and sciences. [32] Jordaens' depiction is very much likened to Rubens Prometheus. Jordaens' positioning of the eagle, and backwards, heroically-nude bloodshot-eyed Prometheus, as well as the use of punishment and pain of man with spastic twisting and contorted movements, are also common themes in Rubens' version. [33]

The difference lies in the depiction of Hermes, which can be argued represents a note of optimism of being saved as in other versions of the mythology, Hermes helps obtain Prometheus' release. [34] Still, in the Prometheus Bound attributed to Aeschylus, Hermes treats Prometheus badly, which would argue against an optimistic interpretation. The depiction of the sacks of bones (used in another part of the myth to deceive Zeus) and a clay statue (which represents his creation of man) are also not part of the Rubens painting. [34] Another notable difference is the look of pure agony in Jordaens' Prometheus while Rubens' figure relies on the suggestion of the contorted figure to convey the same feeling. Jordaens' Prometheus is a facial study, a prevalent subject found in Jordaens' paintings and from other artists during the same time.

Mercury and Argus Edit

Mercury and Argus, painted circa 1620, depicts the a scene from the story of Mercury, Argus, and Io, found in The Metamorphoses written by Ovid (I, 583 IX, 687).

Jupiter (Zeus) falls in love with Io, a priestess of Hera, his wife, who quickly discovers the affair. Jupiter transforms himself into a bull and transforms Io into a beautiful, white heifer in order to hide from Hera's wrath. Hera understands his strategy and demands the heifer as a present. To end their affair, Hera puts Io under the guard of the giant Argus Panoptes, who has 100 eyes. Jupiter commands his son Mercury (Hermes) to set Io free by lulling Argus to sleep with an enchanted flute. Mercury, disguised as a shepherd, is invited by Argus to his camp. Mercury charms him with lullabies and then cuts his head off. [35] The painting is on display at the Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon.

Night Vision Edit

Jordaens' Night Vision depicts a dark and gloomy scene of a young man tormented in his sleep by an apparition of a female nude. On the left hand side of the composition, an elderly woman and a younger woman crack open the door, peering in, and illuminating the room with soft candlelight. They appear to be astonished at the sight of the apparition. Jordaens emphasizes the temporality of this scene by allowing certain elements to stand out sharply against the overall dark ground of the painting. For instance, the sleeping boy has just clumsily knocked over a copper pot and a candlestick which now lie in the foreground of the painting. Special attention is also paid to fabrics in this work. Jordaens creates the sensation of wind with both the flowing white cloth held by the apparition and the billowing red garment worn by the old woman. Erwin Bielefeld asserts that this painting most likely depicts a story written by Phlegon of Tralles for the Roman Emperor Hadrian, of which Jordaens may have had access to a translation or could have adapted from a more contemporary version [36] The ancient story tells the tale of a young man, Marchete, who stays as a guest of a wealthy couple. During the night, Marchete's slumber is disturbed when he dreams of Philinion, the couple's deceased daughter. Grasping the cloth her corpse was wrapped in, Philinion in the guise of a vampire asks to bed with Marchete. Awoken by sounds coming from the room, Philinion's mother, Charito, comes to investigate with the aid of a maidservant. Upon entering the room, they are horrified by the sight of the deceased daughter. [37] Jordaens' Night Vision appears to be a very faithful representation of Phlegon's story and depicts the decisive moment or climax of the ancient tale. Influences evident in this image are common among the work of Jordaens. Most notably, Jordaens borrows the use of candlelight as a main light source from Elsheimer and the use of tenebrism to create drama from Caravaggio. [38]

The Story of Cupid and Psyche Edit

Sometime during the years 1639–40, Jacob Jordaens received the commission to create a series of works for Charles I of England through Balthazar Gerbier, the King's agent in Brussels, and Cesare Alessandro Scaglia, a diplomat residing in Antwerp. The project entailed twenty-two paintings illustrating The Story of Cupid and Psyche (1640–41) [39] – van Dyck's Cupid and Psyche may also be related to the project. While the works were to be displayed in the Queen's House at Greenwich upon completion, the patron and final location were unknown to the artist. [40] As Jordaens submits his initial design to his intermediaries between himself and the English court, Gerbier continually attempts to convince the King that Rubens would be much more suited to a project requiring such substantial amounts of foreshortening. [41] His efforts are in vain, however, as Rubens dies on 30 May 1640. With Rubens' death, Jordaens bore sole responsibility for the entire commission. [42] Efforts to continue with the project continued slowly, and a year later, in May 1641, all plans for The Story of Cupid and Psyche series were disrupted, with the death of diplomat Scaglia. The project never fulfilled, only eight completed paintings made their way to the English Court, and a resulting dispute with Scaglia's heirs over payment for seven of these works continued into the next generation. [39]

Another version of the Story of Cupid and Psyche adorned the ceilings of Jordaens' house in Antwerp. At least nine decorated the ceiling of a salon in the South wing of the house, with Psyche Received by the Gods forming the centrepiece. Included in the series were Psyche's Father Questions the Oracle in the Temple of Apollo, The Love of Cupid and Psyche, The Curiosity of Psyche, Cupid's Flight, Psyche Received by the Gods and two putti pieces. The ceiling pieces are all foreshortenings, seen from below, and the perspective system was borrowed verbatim from Rubens' ceiling pieces in the Jesuit church in Antwerp. The paintings are viewed through an octagonal 'aperture' frame. [43] According to the inventory left by Jordaens' grandchildren, these paintings were part of the sale of the house in 1708.

Diana and Actaeon Edit

Completed around 1640, this lavish and erotic version of the mythological tableau which is perhaps based on the better known 1556–59 version by Titian, depicts Actaeon bearing a phallic spear as a clear sexual threat to Diana and her court. [ citation needed ] It is in the collection of the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister Dresden, but has become the artist's most "seen" painting by dint of its appearance in several films including the art conscious 1967 James Bond spoof, Casino Royale, where it hangs above the master's bed in "M"'s Scottish castle and is erroneously labelled a Titian, [ citation needed ] and more recently in the 2008 film on the von Stauffenberg assassination plot against Hitler, Valkyrie, where it appears in the mock up of the Grand Hall in Hitler's Bavarian Berghof (residence), a suggestion of looted art and the dictator's desire for old Germanic masters. [ citation needed ]

The Holy Family with Various Persons and Animals in a Boat Edit

The style of Jacob Jordaens' mid-century painting can be clearly seen in The Holy Family with Various Persons and Animals in a Boat (1652). Nearing the age of sixty, Jordaens' paintings became more the work of his assistants following the direction of Jordaens, and the production of his work began to decline. He included great numbers of figures in his works, which became a heavy task for a 60-year-old. The palette used is monotonous, with variety from grayish-blue to brown. At times taking away from the rest of the painting and composition, the gestures of the figures are often self-contained while the bodies themselves are angular in form. [44]

The Triumph of Frederik Hendrik Edit

Jordaens' painting, The Triumph of Frederik Hendrik, painted in 1651, portrays over fifty figures surrounding Stadholder Frederik Hendrik and his relatives. The piece was painted in honour of Stadholder Frederik Hendrik, Prince of Orange, and commissioned by his consort, Amalia van Solms. She was looking to commemorate the Stadholder after his death in 1647. The collection of work that was being assembled, as was common practice of the time, was meant to glorify the prince and his valiant deeds. [45] Instead of describing events, using straight forward images and icons, the collection was painted in allegories used to enthrone the Stadholder as heroic and virtuous. [46] It was displayed in Huis ten Bosch (House in the Woods), which began as a suburban retreat for Amalia van Solms (today a royal palace). The painting hangs in the Oranjezaal, the last remaining intact interior in Huis ten Bosch, covering much of the lower tier of the room as it is quite large and completely dominant in the room. Jordaens was chosen as he was highly respected as part of the Flemish trio that included Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony Van Dyck. [45]

Frederik Hendrik rides on a triumphal chariot, carried as a god, as bringer of peace and as one who has manifested prosperity shown in olive branches and cornucopias. On both sides of the painting are portraits of men carrying products from the West and East Indies. This makes the prince appear as if he is solely responsible for military victories as well as the immense wealth of the Republic. [46] The work was made with intensive complexity. Even today scholars discuss the many references Jordaens included in the painting. Many find it difficult to decode all of them. Overall it seems easy to gather the main message Jordaens included in the painting, however, it is filled with so many more symbolic people and figures that further explanation from the artist was needed by his contemporaries to understand all of the painting. [47]

The Eye of the Master Makes the Horse Fat Edit

Jacob Jordaens had often used proverbs in his paintings, using the characters in the portrait to play out the meaning of the proverb (usually a warning of sorts). This technique made it easy to compare Jordaens with Pieter Bruegel, who often used proverbs. He saw it as a good way to expose the foolish and erring nature of man. Usually looking for a proverb with a positive, optimistic message, Jordaens would use his characters to explain the proverb's caution, explicitly or by implying the message. In The Eye of the Master Makes the Horse Fat, a horse is centred in the midst of flourishing prosperity begat by good management. Jordaens includes the god, Mercury, who takes a place in equine astrology with a salutary planetary influence on horses. [48]

In Spain there is an interesting set of his works. The Prado Museum preserves eleven works of his brush, including the mentioned Self-portrait with Wife and Daughter Elizabeth, another eight of which are mythological (including some from the Torre de la Parada Commission) one of Three strolling Musicians and a Pietà, in addition to a drawing and a gouache. [49] The Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum owns a Holy Family with an Angel [50] in which the participation of its workshop is also noticeable. The Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando has a Diana and Callisto [51] and in The Lázaro Galdiano Museum a canvas with Two Cherubs embraced is attributed to him. [52] The Bilbao Fine Arts Museum keeps a fragment of Jupiter's childhood titled: Satyr playing the Pipe [53] and a Head of a Peasant. [54]

Other Works Edit

Portrait of a Young Married Couple, about 1621–22, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston [55]

Peasants In The Middle Ages

Peasants in the middle ages were mainly agricultural farmers who worked in lands that were owned by a lord. The lord would rent out his land to the peasants in exchange for economic labor. Peasants were tied to the land and were not allowed to move away from the land or change their profession unless they became freemen. To become a freeman a peasant would have to buy a plot of land or pay dues to the lord.

In addition to the labor that they provided the lords, peasants in the middle ages also contributed some of their agricultural produce to their masters as a form of payment. Approximately nine out of ten people in the middle ages were peasants and only a few of them were not bound to the land. Nevertheless, the freemen also paid some form of rent for living and working in the lord’s manor. Large majorities of peasants were villeins and serfs in theory, the villeins had more rights when compared to the serfs and fewer obligations to the lords. However, in reality there was almost no difference between them.

Within the feudal structure, peasants would generally be grouped into farmers and craftspeople. The farmers spend their time working in the fields. After paying their dues to the lord, they would keep the rest of the produce to be used by the family or to sell. Peasant craftspeople were trained in their profession by their parents who were also undertaking the same craft. Alternatively, they would learn the skills from other crafts people as apprentices.

The goods that they produced were mainly for sale they would use the proceeds to cater for costs such as taxation imposed by the lords who owned the land in which the craftsmen lived with their families. They also used these proceeds to purchase food from the peasant farmers. In addition to developing goods such as pottery, leather and ironwork, they also helped in repair work around the villages and in the towns.

Peasants had very few possessions. These included domestic furniture such as wooden bowls, spoons, pot, cups, stools, benches and their tools of trade. It was not common to own a bed and most of the time the peasants slept on the floor on mattresses made from straws.

They also had little in the way of clothes and usually slept in their work apparels and covered themselves using animal skins. The lady of the house would assist in the craftwork or she would tend to the children and the small garden behind their home. Although most peasants lived in the village, some lived in the towns and commuted to the farms they had rented, daily.

Peasants in the middle ages lived in small and dark homes that were close to each other within the walls of the village. The house windows were built with security in mind they were small with shatters made from wood.

They lived in close proximity to each other for security given the numerous barbaric wars and conflicts that characterized the Middle Ages. When not working, they would spend time within their small quarters. They rarely ventured out to other villages and most peasants would be born, married and die within the same village.

Peasant males usually clad in tunics and stockings while the females donned lengthy gowns with tunic and covered their hair. The women were generally in charge of mending clothes for the entire family and they would spend endless hours producing fiber for mending these clothes. The peasants were not used to cleaning their outer clothes but regularly cleaned the inner wears.

Although peasants worked hard in the farms or with their craft, they enjoyed several holidays. In total, peasants worked for 260 days, and the other days were spent in religious and non-religios festivities. They hosted festivals during the planting and harvest times and offered burnt sacrifices during the frequent famines that would destroy their crop.

Religion played a significant role in the life of the peasant. Before the 10th century that saw the dawn of tyrannical governments and kings, the Church was the predominant source of authority. The Church established stringent laws and the peasants were keen to uphold these laws. However as the role of the church grew and sometime became overbearing the peasants began to resent the clergy.

They would indeed look up to the church to provide them with solace and also basic necessities such as food and housing, especially for the poorest peasants. They also looked up to the church as a source of knowledge and often sent their children to the church school to study religion or Latin. Most peasants religiously observed occasions such as Mass, Holy Communion and baptisms.

Peasants Revolt

The peasants’ revolt served to emancipate the peasant from the hardship that he was facing working in the lord’s manor. Following this plague, there were very few peasants to work on the lord’s manors and the lords were desperate to keep the ones that they had working for them.

Peasants in the middle ages saw this as an opportunity to ask for better working conditions and wages. Peasants began to move from one manor to another looking for a lord who was willing to pay higher wages. This movement threatened the foundation of the feudal system, which required the farmers be bound to the land that they toiled. Interestingly it was the lords who were encouraging farmers to move from one land to another as each promised to pay higher wages than the next lord.

The government in England moved in to stop this movement and to maintain the feudal system by imposing the 1351 Statute of Laborers. This legislation prohibited lords from paying peasants more than the normal wages and prohibited peasants from moving from their villages. The government in England also imposed the Poll Tax for a third time, causing the lords to raise taxes paid by the peasants. The earlier statute and this poll tax aggravated the peasants who under the leadership of Jack Straw, Wat Tyler and John Ball began a revolt in 1381.

The peasants who congregated in London demanded that King Richard I abolish serfdom, laws that prohibited the hunting of games and the use of forest, and tithes. In the end, only the poll tax was abolished and the peasants’ leaders were barbarically executed.

Key neighbourhoods in Budapest

Castle Hill (District I)

Buda is the &ldquoAustrian&rdquo half of the city and it&rsquos a quiet, residential, hilly part of town that&rsquos unremarkable suburbia except for Castle Hill that oozes Austro-Hungarian nostalgia and sports unmissable attractions. There&rsquos a string of museums housed in the old Habsburg palace, the neo-Gothic Matthias church and a grand viewing terrace at the Fishermen&rsquos Bastion.

Belváros/Lipótváros (District V)

The sightseeing centre of Pest is spread between the Margaret and Freedom bridges. On Kossuth square you&rsquoll find the majestic Houses of Parliament and below the square, an underground museum of the 1956 revolution. Further south rises the Italianate St Stephen&rsquos Basilica, the landmark Iron Bridge, plus the restaurant and shopping area around Vörösmarty square.

Brian Kinney/Shutterstock

Erszébetváros (District VII)

The historic Jewish quarter, with several synagogues still standing is where much of the nightlife is concentrated. The district&rsquos &lsquoruin pubs&rsquo helped make the area cool, but they&rsquove also been a catalyst for gentrification and price hikes.

Terézváros (District VI)

Terézváros feels as if it belongs to a different city, because of the mass of construction before Budapest&rsquos 1896 millennial celebrations. Andrássy Avenue, the capital&rsquos most beautiful boulevard leads to the massive expanse of Heroes&rsquo Square and the municipal park of Városliget. Underneath Andrássy Avenue runs metro line 1 &ndash the oldest in the continent and a UNESCO site &ndash with stops at the Opera and the House of Terror, a sobering museum on the grounds of the Communist Secret Police headquarters.

Ujpest (District IX)

The southern part of Buda, opposite the Elisabeth Bridge, is marked by Gellért Hill, at the foot of which lies the eponymous hotel whose opulence is the stuff of legend. Its top is crowned by the Citadella, a fort built by the Habsburgs to keep an eye on revolutionary Pest, and the large Victory statue &ndash one of the few Soviet-era monuments still standing. The locals call it irreverently &lsquothe bottle opener&rsquo and if you look from below, you&rsquoll see why.

Free Art in Cincinnati

Cincinnati Art Museum, a stunning collection of paintings, sculptures, glass, and more, offers totally free admission. It isn’t often you come across a treasure like this that is yours for the taking. The museum sits on a stately hill that is fun to drive to and offers nice photo-ops.

Pinocchio greets you as you enter the museum, and a deep blue Dale Chihuly glass piece hangs inside the door. Some of my favorite pieces include the glass dresses by LaMonte, Rookwood pottery, The Puritan bronze statue by Saint-Gaudens, and Judith with the Head of Holofernes by Botticelli, circa 1469.

Explore downtown Cincinnati on foot and see the incredible buildings and murals around the Over the Rhine neighborhood. The Tyler Davidson Fountain (Genius of Water) has been a focal point in downtown for nearly 150 years now. It is thought of as Cincinnati’s symbol. People come here nightly to enjoy good brews, trivia, and lots more.

Awe over Cincinnati’s impressive bridges, namely the Covington and Cincinnati bridge designed by John Roebling. It was the prototype for the Empire State Building.

Alternate realities and timelines

Picard from six hours in the future

  • In 2365, the Enterprise-D was pulled into an energy vortex and could not return to normal space. In order not to be pulled even further, La Forge had to hold the ship at maximum warp, but such power drainage threatened to destroy the Enterprise. Thinking that the vortex recognized him as the "brain" of the ship and wanted him, and not the Enterprise, Picard boarded the shuttleEl-Baz and left the vessel. The Enterprise was still destroyed, and the El-Baz was pulled six hours back in time, where it was picked up by that time period's Enterprise. Picard encountered his past self, who wanted to discover what would happen to the ship in the future and how to prevent it. Frantic, the future Picard tried to depart in the El-Baz again, but his past counterpart decided that it was time "to end the cycle" and killed him with a phaser. The Enterprise was then able to escape the vortex. ( TNG : " Time Squared ")
  • In 2366, the USS Enterprise-C emerged from a temporal rift. Its disappearance from the year 2344 caused an altered timeline, where the Federation was losing a war against the Klingon Empire. Picard was still the Enterprise-D's commanding officer, though more toughened due to the horrors of war. Upon Guinan's advice, Picard decided to send the Enterprise-C back to the past. After Captain Rachel Garrett was killed during a Klingon attack, Picard allowed Richard Castillo to assume command and return the Enterprise-C to 2344. ( TNG : " Yesterday's Enterprise ")

Lieutenant junior grade Jean-Luc Picard

  • In an alternate timeline created by Q, Picard was given the chance to walk away from his fight with the Nausicaan that caused serious injury to his heart, forcing a bionic replacement to be installed. When he returned to the present, Picard was a mere lieutenant junior grade, with Worf as his supervisor. This was because his near-death experience made the young Picard realize just how fragile life was and how important it could be, thus making him even more determined to make his mark in the universe and take risks as it was, all Picard learned from the incident was to play it safe and not take risks. Picard convinced Q to allow him to correct the damage to his timeline and returned to his reality (although it was never confirmed whether this actually happened or if it was just a near-death hallucination). ( TNG : " Tapestry ")
  • In 2370, Lieutenant Worf encountered a quantum fissure which caused him to begin shifting between quantum realities. In several universes, Picard was still captain of the Enterprise and attended a surprise birthday party for Worf, though his services were stated to be required on the bridge. In the final universe in which Worf arrived, William Riker was the captain, as Picard was lost in the Borg encounter of 2367. In another reality, the Borg had invaded the Federation and the Enterprise was one of the few ships left. Worf was finally returned to his own quantum reality and the quantum fissure was sealed. ( TNG : " Parallels ")

Picard in an alternate timeline

  • In 2370, while standing trial by Q, Picard's consciousness was shifting between three alternate timelines. In an alternate 2364, Picard disobeyed Starfleet orders from the moment he arrived on board the Enterprise at Earth Station McKinley. He called a red alert while docked at the station, ordered the ship to the Devron system instead of to Farpoint Station and took the vessel into a temporal anomaly there. In an alternate 2370, Picard was diagnosed with Irumodic Syndrome by Dr. Crusher. This caused her to reconsider her relationship with Picard, and she reversed her earlier decision to remain just friends. The Enterprise was dispatched to the Devron system near the Romulan Neutral Zone where it discovered the temporal anomaly. In an unknown, alternate future timeframe, Picard found himself at his family's vineyard with Geordi La Forge. Picard contacted Riker, now an admiral and commanding officer of Starbase 247, for help in investigating the anomaly, but Riker refused to allow him passage to the Neutral Zone, thinking Picard had been affected by his Irumodic Syndrome and was delusional. Later, Picard convinced his ex-wife, Beverly Picard, to take her medical ship, the USS Pasteur, to investigate the anomaly. The Pasteur was attacked and destroyed by Klingon battleships, but the Enterprise, under command of Admiral Riker, arrived to rescue the crew and fight off the Klingons. Picard once again pleaded with Riker to return to the Devron system, but he was then sedated and returned to quarters. Armed with new information gathered from the other two timeframes, Picard woke and went to talk to Riker and the other former Enterprise officers, and convinced them that the anomaly existed. The Enterprise returned just in time to watch it form, and Riker ordered the Enterprise into the anomaly, where it used a static warp shell in concert with the other Enterprises to collapse it. After the anomaly was sealed, the timelines were erased, and only Picard retained memory of those events. He told his staff of his experiences in the future, in hopes that things such as the conflict between Worf and Riker that followed Deanna Troi's death never happen. ( TNG : " All Good Things. ")
  • Picard was briefly trapped in the Nexus during a mission to stop renegade El-Aurianscientist Dr. Tolian Soran from destroying the Veridian system. In the perfect world in the Nexus, his nephew René (who had recently died in a fire) was still alive, and he had a wife and four children. Realizing that it wasn't real, he rejected the reality offered to him and left the Nexus to defeat Soran with the aid of Captain James T. Kirk. ( Star Trek Generations)

Three Reasons to go to Tapestry in Queen Village - Recipes

'The Merry Wives of Windsor'
from the Gold Medal winning series exhibited in Paris, 1878
For a full description click here


The late Victorian period was a time when old craft skills using hand and eye rather than machines were being revived, notably by the artist William Morris. Tapestry weaving, considered by Morris to be the finest form of textile craft, was one of them, and he established his own tapestry works in 1881. Somewhat to his chagrin, however, he had been pre-empted by a firm based in Old Windsor.
The Old Windsor Tapestry Manufactory was founded in 1876 by two Frenchmen, Marcel Brignolas, as Manager, and Henri C. J. Henry as its first Director. Henry was Art Director of Gillows, Oxford Street, London . They brought weavers over from the famous French Aubusson works, and set up their looms in Manor Lodge in Straight Road, Old Windsor, a building since demolished. The 1881 census shows a large number of families from Aubusson or Paris living in the village. Wives worked as tapestry repairers and children received some education at a school held at the Lord Nelson public house where the wool dyeing works were first set up.
The Old Windsor Tapestry Manufactory was one of only two tapestry works to be established in England in the 19th Century, the other being that of William Morrisat Merton Abbey, The Manufactory enjoyed royal patronage as Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, the youngest son of Queen Victoria, enthusiastically supported the project, becoming its President.
Perhaps the first tapestry completed at Windsor bore the names of Michel Brignolas, the first Manager of the manufactory, and Henri C. J. Henry, the RWTM Director. It was a bust size picture of Queen Victoria and was woven from a design after the painting by Baron Heinrich von Angeli, adapted by Phoebus Levin.

Queen Victoria
by Phoebus Levin after Von Angeliz
This tapestry can be seen in the Textile section of the Victoria and Albert Museum.
For a full description of this tapestry click here

Another important early work was a commission by Gillows of eight tapestries depicting scenes from Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor, designed by the artist T. W. Hay, and shown at the Paris Exhibition of 1878. These lively and colourful tapestries won a gold medal, beating rivals from France itself.
In 1882 confidence in the future was shown when the Tapestry Hall was built, with twelve attached cottages for the workers and a central hall to display the tapestries. The works flourished, and more weavers from France arrived, attracted by pay of £1 a day. English apprentices were taken on but the majority of the weavers were French.
When Queen Victoria learnt of the success, she sent some of her own tapestries from Holyrood House to Old Windsor for repair, and became Patron, consenting to the manufactory being termed 'Royal' in 1880. She made several visits to the manufactory and recorded her impressions - which were favourable - in her Journal. The Queen was often accompanied by Princess Beatrice or the Prince of Wales. The Duke of Connaught appears to have been a frequent visitor as was Princess Louise, Marchioness of Lorne. Princess Louise also designed some tapestries, and became one of the two Vice Presidents of the Tapestry Manufactory, the other being Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein. The Queen's son, The Crown Prince Wilhelm of Germany, later Kaiser William II, was another visitor while her oldest daughter, Victoria Crown Princess of Prussia, commissioned a tapestry of Shakespeare' s 'Much Ado About Nothing', which may be the one now hanging in Buckingham Palace . Others commissions included a sofa, made for the Queen. [The Queen's Sofa]

A View and Plan of The Tapestry Works

The Committee established to control the manufactory included many members of the Court and the nobility. Whether they ever actually met as a committee is not clear, but soon afterwards a Committee of Guarantors replaced them. This was headed by Prince Leopold until his sudden death in 1884. He was followed as President by the Prince of Wales, whose support for the enterprise was less strong and then, fairly suddenly, ceased. This was when, in the latter part of 1884, it became clear that there were acute financial problems at the Tapestry Manufactory, as well as a stock of more or less unpopular designs which sold only slowly, while the wages bill mounted.
By this time there were about 100 employees, mainly French, and several English apprentices. The 9 Guarantors included wealthy and expert patrons of the Arts such as Sir Richard Wallace (who helped form what is now the Wallace Collection in London), Sir Charles Freake, Mr. H. Brassey M.P., and Lord Aldenham (then Mr. A. Gibbs), also Mr. Coleridge Kennard, Mr. A. Morrison, and the artist librarian of the Royal Academy Mr. J. E. Hodgson R.A., as well as a representative of Gillows. The Queen helped both directly with orders and visits and indirectly, showing sympathy for the Duchess of Albany, Princess Helen, (Leopold's widow) who received great service from her comptroller, Sir Robert Collins. He had followed Lord Ronald Gower, the sculptor, as Secretary of the Royal Windsor Tapestry Manufactory. Sir Robert strove unavailingly to prevent the final closure of the Manufactory before the stocks could be sold.

The Tapestry Hall, Old Windsor, in 1904

A second view published by W J Young of Old Windsor as a postcard and featuring the local postman, a dog, children in a snowy winter scene circa 1905

The Tapestry Manufactory began with four low warp looms, by 1882 there were eight looms and at the closure in 1890 there were sixteen. One high warp loom was purchased for experimental purposes, and for comparison of work. It appears to be significant that American tapestry works established in 1893 after the Windsor works had closed were all low warp, thus following the trend established at Old Windsor and no doubt taken to the United States by the same weavers either direct or from Aubusson. It is known that one of the first families of weavers to go to America, the Foussadiers, took with them a small portable low warp loom. This was perhaps the walnut one used to demonstrate the technique in the Guildhall at Windsor during the exhibition of Windsor tapestries in December 1878, where it was used to weave the panel presented to the Borough by Henri C. J. Henry.

One of a pair of Commemorative Banners presented by Mr H Henry to the Corporation of Windsor on June 20th 1887.

Designs for the Tapestries

The notable Victorian historical artist, E. M. Ward R.A., who lived nearby in the Borough of Windsor and who was a friend of several members of the Royal family, was one of the first artists engaged to prepare designs and cartoons for the new Windsor Tapestry Manufactory. Between 1876 and his death in 1879 he produced several designs for tapestries for the staircase of the eccentric Christopher Sykes M.P., whose new mansion in Hill Street, Mayfair, was where he entertained the Prince of Wales, later to become King Edward VII. These pieces were of hunting scenes in medieval times. Ward also designed the huge 'Battle of Aylesford' tapestry - the largest ever made at the Windsor works. His widow, Mrs. Henrietta Ward, worked on several cartoons after his death.
In 1877 the first major series of tapestries - the eight panels of the 'Merry Wives of Windsor' designed by T. W. Hay (an associate of Henry's at Gillows) - were ordered by Gillows for the decoration of the Prince of Wales Pavilion at the 1878 Paris Exhibition. Here they hung in the dining room. They were very good - good enough to win the Gold Medal for tapestries against the competition of the great French manufacturies, a remarkable effort for a new works. During the research for The Royal Windsor Tapestry Manufactory in 1979, these tapestries could not be traced, but just as the original printed version of this history was going to press, seven of the eight came to Messrs. Christie for auction and with their kind permission could be examined and photographed.
In addition, there have survived sketches for the 'Merry Wives of Windsor' together with the mantlepiece they flanked, which contained the tapestry portrait of the Queen illustrated above. This mantlepiece, inlaid with ebony and ivory and richly carved, and the gold medal tapestries, were subsequently bought by the millionaire Sir Albert Sassoon for his mansion at 25 Kensington Gore, where the Prince of Wales was a frequent guest.
Few of the original designs or cartoons are known to have survived. Of the four cartoons for the historic Royal Windsor tapestries in the Mansion House, three were destroyed in the 1941 blitz on London. Several of the cartoons for the 'Royal Residence' series of tapestries which hung above the Exit stairs from the State Apartments at Windsor Castle are listed in the Catalogue of Prints and Drawings at the Victoria and Albert Museum, but do not now seem to be there. The pair of cartoons for Queen Victoria's sofa , also listed, are still safe, as is the cartoon f or Prince Leopold's Arms. It is possible that the sofa survives in the royal collection but the tapestry for Prince Leopold's Arms is one of many that cannot be traced.

Chalk designs by Richard Beavis and E. M. Ward for the horses and figures in Ward's huge 'Battle of Aylesford' tapestry are on loan to the museum at the Guildhall, Windsor, from the Maidstone Museum, together with the watercolours for this work and the one by J. E. Hodgson R.A. for his 'Men of Kent marching in front of Harold's Army'.

The Manufacture of the Tapestries

The wool was obtained in the natural colour, and dyed in copper vats to match exactly the colours in the cartoons. The vats at Old Windsor were first established by Brignolas in an outhouse at the 'Lord Nelson' public house and soon moved to Manor Lodge, Straight Road, Old Windsor. Outhouse and Lodge are now both demolished. The latter site adjoins the still existing Manor Cottage and has associations with both the Tapestry Works and the Royal Windsor Stained Glass Works which was contemporary with the tapestry manufactory, but under separate management.
Thousands of shades were prepared, and by twisting lighter or darker shades of wool in one or two of the three strands, a range of colours could be obtained to match the slightest change of tint. Vegetable dyes were used, aniline dyes apparently being spurned by the dyers, and these dyes with their mordants were the responsibility of the Head Dyer, first Brignolas, then Jean Foussadier. Foussadier apparently found the Old Windsor water just as peculiarly suitable for dyeing as that of the Bievre at the Gobelins in the parish of Saint Marcel near Paris. Later he was to find the waters of the Bronx River in New York just as suitable, 'by reason of the dissolved vegetable content'. Here he taught all he knew to his younger son Louis, who was to succeed his father as manager in New York, 32 years after his arrival and apprenticeship there.
The traditional natural dyes were no doubt used, those that had proved resistant to light. Indigo had replaced woad for blue a warm red came from madder and red also came from dried insects known as Kermes, and from cochineal and Brazilwood. Purples were made from the orchilis lichen, and the various mordants available together with blending, gave a wide range of colours.
Shading and hatching (hachures) were used to convey three dimensional form, folds in draperies and even skin tones and contours, together with subtle blends of colours and highlights. In 1877 Brignolas recorded that 5,000 shades had been produced for the work in progress which included the Queen's portrait, and 'The Merry Wives of Windsor'.
Brignolas was enthusiastic about the range of colours - the Circle Chromatique - that had been developed by M. Chevreuil, who was in charge of the dyeing laboratory at the Gobelins. This was because of the possibilities for imitatating painting, but in the opinion of many, including William Morris, this set the art on a fatal course, and depreciated the tapestries' artistic integrity. However, the portrait of Queen Victoria had very many admirers, even Ward, who agreed with Lord Ronald Gower that 'it was faithful to the original, and with perhaps a little more life. '
Changes of colour break the interlacing of the weft, and if continued for several rows, becomes a slit. These, unless very small, have to be sewn up after removal from the loom. The interlocking of wefts obviated slits, but slits were sometimes required to indicate a definite division, or shadow. Texture was given by 'packing' or building up the wefts and by eccentric weaving. Slits were sewn up by Mme. Foussadier and her daughter, Mlle. Adrienne.
The Windsor looms were 'basse-lisse', horizontal or 'low-warp', and not 'haute-lisse', upright or 'high-warp', as at the Gobelins. The weavers sat at the low-warp looms - as many as there were room for having regard to the design and urgency. The operation of the pedals enabled the bobbins loaded with coloured thread to be passed in alternate directions. A supplement dated 29 April 1882 to the Illustrated London News contains a page of sketches of work in progress at the Royal Windsor Tapestry Manufactory: 'Dyeing the wool,' 'Winding the wool', A low-warp Tapestry loom, Preparing the warp, plus an illustration of several women engaged upon repairing old tapestry. Mme. Foussadier and her daughter Adrienne were the chief needleworkers and repairers at Windsor and, after 1893, in New York.
The repair of old tapestries is one of the important jobs that comes to a tapestry works, and is extremely skilled. Queen Victoria ordered that tapestries from Holyrood House should be sent to Windsor for repair at the works, as were tapestries from Inverary Castle sent in 1877 after a disastrous fire. After a similar fire in 1975 the same tapestries were sent to nearby Hampton Court for repair. The Irish House of Lords' tapestries were also sent to Old Windsor for repair in 1878 and it is ironical that when such work was desperately needed to keep the work force employed in 1885, especially those women with parents to support, excuses were found to deny the order to Old Windsor for repairing some Hampton Court tapestries. Instead it was decided to employ darning women unused to tapestry repairwork, rather than give the struggling Royal Windsor tapestry works the chance to earn some money. The Queen's wish that the work should be given to Old Windsor was ignored, and the workers' expertise in repair was denigrated. This was not the first time that the project had met opposition - the 'trade' aspect together with the financial uncertainty of which may have been unpopular in certain high places.
When work was waiting and orders plentiful, many weavers came to Old Windsor attracted by the good wages - 10 old pennies an hour, £1 for 24 hours' work. In 1877 power-loom weavers were getting only 87pennies. Before decimalisation in the UK the pound sterling comprised 240 pennies. There were 12 pennies in a shilling (5p), and twenty shillings in a pound. Spinners received £1.69 per week according to Mr. Roy Assersohn, the City Editor of the Daily Express in its 23 December 1977 issue. The working day at the Windsor Tapestry Manufactory commenced at 8a.m. and finished at 6.30p.m. Most of the workers lived in the village, providing for themselves. Eventually there were 100 households attached to the Manufactory and as many collections of household furniture. Apparently the household effects were found by the Manufactory, so that there were 100 sets for disposal at the closing down sale by auction in 1895.
The weavers taught English apprentices, but there were French apprentices such as Jean Foussadier's eldest son Antoine, who had earned the designation of weaver by the time the Old Windsor works had closed. Foussadier Census entry. He is on record as having worked on several important tapestries including the Aldenham Tapestries by Herbert Bone. Some apprentices went to the Merton Abbey tapestry works started by William Morris. These included William Haines and William Eleman. Both were highly regarded there and given important work.
Another weaver from Old Windsor - Octave Dennaud Bouret - was to find employment at the Edgwater Tapestry Looms (1913-1932/3) founded in the New Jersey town by Lorentz Kleiser. Later he went with Kleiser to Palos Verdes and Hawthorne, California, in the 1930s in an attempt to continue the tapestry enterprise, then suffering in the Depression.
Other weavers whose names are known include J. Roby, J. Brunaud and J. Bregere. These three also worked on the Royal Windsor tapestries for Aldenham House, Herts. Another worker named Francellon had a young daughter Antoinette who at the age of three was to present Prince Leopold's bride with a bouquet as the wedding coach stopped briefly at the works on its way to Claremont in April 1882.
Politics and weaving have never been far apart. English wool played an important part in the social and economic history of the Middle Ages, when cloth from English wool woven in the cloth towns of Flanders supplied the traders of Europe. Edward III made great efforts to establish the manufacture of woollen textiles in England using wool denied to Flanders. He was aided in this by the repression and persecution of the Flanders workers which resulted in their coming to England where conditions appeared to be better.
Similarly in the revolutionary days of the Commune, French tapestry workers were attracted in 1876 to the newly set up looms of Windsor. Michel Brignolas was an emigre who had fled from the Commune and he probably was instrumental in inviting other experienced workers to make the journey from Aubusson, France, to Windsor - more than 500 miles - but the pay and conditions were better than in France.
In February 1877 there were six workers engaged in weaving new tapestry and repairing old at Manor Lodge. This was a small two-storey building opposite the present 'Tapestries' or Tapestry Hall. The latter was built in 1882 to house the expanding manufactory and included twelve cottages for employees. A large central hall was provided with a gallery for the display of finished tapestries. The site for this building was leased with difficulty after long delays from the Crown, possibly only after pressure by the Queen and after the success at the 1878 Paris Exhibition. There had been considerable obstruction by some at Court, who appeared to fear a large satanic mill would develop, with smoke and noise to distress the Castle. Prince Leopold's interest in the project was deprecated and the Queen's support nullified for a long period.
In 1828 Windsor's first gasworks had been proposed to be erected at 'The Nelson' public house, Old Windsor, fronting the road to Frogmore and Windsor Castle, and this precipitated a policy of Crown land purchase.
By 1878 there were eight looms and this number had increased to sixteen by 1884, the same number as at the closure in 1890. Recalling that there had been 100 households attached to the manufactory, this amounted to a remarkable total in a village then of about 1,100 inhabitants but nothing of the French influence appears to remain, only a faint memory.

Events after The Death of Prince Leopold

The sudden death of Prince Leopold on 28 March, 1884, was a great blow to the manufactory. The Prince had been aware of the difficulties ahead when he drafted a letter on 21 February 1884. It was designed to enlist the sympathy and help of Corporations and other public bodies in an effort to establish a national enterprise connected with the Art Industry, with aims for training and employment. He was succeeded as President by his brother, the Prince of Wales, who circulated a similar letter dated 22 May 1884 expressing a desire to second the efforts made by Prince Leopold, and inviting donations towards the Endowment Fund, orders for tapestries, and for the repair of old tapestries. Resulting donations appear to have been few and the only order of note was from the City of London for four historical tapestries which now hang in the Mansion House. An order for the repair of tapestries from Hampton Court Palace was actively opposed, because the financial position of the manufactory was giving cause for alarm, and, very reasonably, for the Prince of Wales to be seen as the President of a bankrupt manufactory could not be viewed with anything but alarm by many.
Largely due, however, to persistent efforts by the Secretary, Sir Robert Collins and by Princess Helen, Duchess of Albany (the widow of Prince Leopold) and to the sympathy of Queen Victoria, the manufactory was saved from immediate closure. Control was vested in the hands of the Guarantors who had put their money into the project and they decided to continue operations in the face of opposition from many at court. The Guarantors still had some hope of getting their money back when the stocks had been sold, particularly if new orders could be obtained. The Gibbs family ordered two groups of historical tapestries, 'The Windsor Tapestries at Tyntesfield Somerset' and the 'Windsor Tapestries at Aldenham House Hertfordshire', which were described in detail by the designer Herbert Bone in privately printed pamphlets dated 1888 and 1881 respectively. The reputation of the Manufactory gained much from these magnificent tapestries according to contemporary reports but only the former have been traced and seen by the writer, although the latter group may exist still - they passed through the London auction salerooms in the 1930s.
After these orders and a few others had been completed, the decline of the Windsor Manufactory could not be arrested. Henri C. J. Henry made great efforts in 1888 to secure an order from the Drapers Company for a copy of 'Jason and Medea', the 18th century Gobelin tapestry in the Grand Reception Room at Windsor Castle. The order seemed imminent and consent to make the copy had been received, when the Drapers changed their minds. Whether the works at Old Windsor had appeared run down when visited by the Company's representatives (certainly many workers had drifted back to France by then) or whether pressure had been exerted is not known. The long hoped for help from the Government in the form of the creation of a National Establishment (as in France) to make and repair fine tapestries for the nation's public buildings was not to become fact and after more than twelve years all those concerned must have lost heart. The £1,000 or so a year grant for 'The Arts' that had stopped because of Government economies after the Prince Consort died was not to be recommended but it was dourly noted by the Guarantors that large sums were spent on buying foreign 'works of art' to embellish Government buildings.
Some newspaper reviews of the fine tapestries, while praising their artistry and quality referred to their alleged unhygienic properties. A series of bad harvests in the late 1870s followed by a huge increase in food imports including prairie wheat and New Zealand frozen mutton spelt ruin for British agriculture and less money for the great landowners whose orders might have kept the works open. By September 1888 the last French weaver, except for Brignolas, had returned to Aubusson. Some were to be persuaded to go to New York, as did the Foussadier family of five, apparently direct from Aubusson early in 1893. William Baumgarten's inducements of good wages and steady employment had won their favour and the first American tapestry works was to start by the Bronx river. Brignolas moved to Poland Street, Soho, where he set up his workshop. Among his works there is a series depicting the history of the Clan Macintosh.
The Old Windsor Manufactory closed its doors on Christmas Eve 1890. The plant was sold by auction in March 1895. It included sixteen looms, three spinning wheels, a French billiards table, 100 lots of household furniture and the magnificent cartoons by British artists including E. M. Ward R.A. Almost all of these were bought by manufacturers from Aubusson for ridiculously low prices - 'hardly more than the value of the paper canvas and string' reported the press. Some 'false' Royal Windsor tapestries were to come on to the market, giving the Manufactory a bad name but whether or not these came from Aubusson is not known. They look like 'RWTs', but have no marks.

Exhibitions and Collections

The fame of the Royal Windsor Tapestry Manufactory may be traceable to an Exposition promoted in the Golden Gate Park, San Francisco in 1894 by M. H. de Young who is known to have been impressed by the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago, and it was to the Chicago Fair of 1893 that Walter Henry Harris of the City of London, British Commissioner to the Fair, took a collection of 31 Royal Windsor Tapestries. He had them photographed in 'platinotype' and the prints bound together with a preface outlining the history of the Manufactory in four copies. He was permitted to present the first of these to Queen Victoria at Balmoral, the second to the Duchess of Albany and the third to the Prince of Wales. The last copy appears to be lost, but the other two are in the Royal Collection and Princess Alice's residence at Kensington Palace respectively, while the fourth is in the Reading Reference Library.
The San Francisco Exposition of 1894 left a dollar surplus and the exhibited items. The latter became the nucleus of the M. H. de Young Memorial Museum at Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, and also contributed to the equally magnificent California Palace of the Legion of Honor at Lincoln Park. The collection of tapestries augmented by gifts from the Hearst Foundation and other important gifts and purchases has resulted in a concentration of famous tapestries probably unrivalled anywhere in the world, as demonstrated by their 'Five Centuries of Tapestry' exhibition of 1976.

The RWTM Weavers Mark

Royal Windsor Tapestries may be identified by the weaver's mark, which is a stylized crown above two capital 'L', the first reversed.

The Royal Windsor Tapestry weavers mark
N.B. For simplicity in these pages ' _l l_ ' has been used in the accompanying text pages

This is usually found on the top guard edge, sometimes with 'Royal Windsor Tapestry' woven in block letters about one inch in height. In the early tapestries, the weavers' marks were superimposed on the design, near the bottom, as in 'The Merry Wives of Windsor' series.
When King Edward came to deal with the personal possessions left at Windsor Castle by Queen Victoria, it appears that tapestries which had been rolled up and forgotten were among other things disposed of or destroyed.
No details have survived concerning the complete output of the manufactory, but the items on this web site comprise almost every item found to date and is sufficient perhaps to indicate the importance of the Old Windsor tapestries: the only attempt other than that of William Morris to revive this ancient craft in England in the 19th century.